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Anderson, a Scotchman, was the manager of Crawford Company's station on Jaluit in 1889-1890. He is described by a contemporary as "young, genial and popular."
Sources: Farrell 1928: 367-369
Captain Baker, as he was known, was a trader on Majuro during German times. He was the last store-keeper before its close in 1918.
Sources: Chave 1947: 48
Baiser was a trader on Majuro in 1875 working for Bully Hayes, but he asked the captain of the Protestant vessel "Morning Star" to take him off the island later that same year.
Sources: Colcord 1875: Journal on the Morning Star, 1875, p. 23
Louis BeckeKosrae, Majuro (1874, 1882)
Louis Becke, the author, may have been the supercargo on Bully Hayes' vessel "Leonora" in the early 1870s. He spent several months on Kosrae when the "Leonora" was wrecked there. He is said to have traded on Majuro in 1882, but stayed there for only one year.
Sources: Browning 1972: 37
Frank BensonMili, Arno (1872-1883)
Frank Benson, an American, was landed at Mili in January 1872 to be the agent of Bully Hayes on that island. He next appears in the records as an agent for Hernshim on Arno between 1880 and 1883.
Sources: Browning 1972: 35; Thurston 1885
R. A. BerryEbon (1884)
Berry was a British subject of Irish descent. He lived on Ebon in 1884 as a trader for Henderson & MacFarlane. He left in December of that year to return to Ireland. He claimed that the people of Ebon stole $250 worth of his goods.
Sources: Moore 1884
William BonarEbon, Yap (1877-1878)
Bonar evidently resided in New Zealand. He was a trader on Ebon in the Marshalls for a short time, January-March 1977. He then was taken to Yap where he was an agent for Thomas Farrell for a little longer than a year. He returned to Auckland aboard the "Vision" in October 1878.
Sources: Young 1878: 13 Sept 1877; New Zealand Herald, 8 Oct 1878
George Brown (Basilio Terranova)Arno (1867-1881?)
Basilio Terranova was an Italian who first came to the Marshalls from Hawaii in 1867. He was working on Ben Peace's ship "Blossom" . He was still living there in 1872, working for Bully Hayes and Charles Howard. In April 1876 he began trading for Hernsheim Co., but soon began working on the "Vision". Terranova and his brother were still trading on Arno in 1881 and working for Hernsheim Co.
Sources: Young 1881: June 30, 1876; Pitman 1872: 23 May 1872; Moore 1872: 4; Restieaux 1869; Maxwell 1881
Henry Burlingham (Burlingame)Majuro, Pingelap, Mili, (1869-1876)
Henry Burlingham, was an American trader who resided on Pingelap sometime during the 1860s. When he moved to Majuro in 1869 to trade for Bully Hayes, he left his wife and child in Pingelap. Hayes later brought the child to Majuro charging the trader $50 for the favor. Burlingham is said to have talked people out of killing first Hawaiian missionary on Majuro who "amused himself by breaking in young girls." Burlingham was still on Majuro in December 1871, and remained there for at least another year or two as an agent for Bully Hayes. He helped Kaibuke against Jibberik, a paramount chief of Majuro. He moved to Mili some time before 1876, but in June 1876 he was back on Majuro, trading for Capelle.
Sources: Restieaux 1869: 11-12; Young 1878; Pitman 1872; Dana 1935: 54-55; Browning 1972: 36
John CameronMili, Jaluit, Pohnpei, Kiribati (1888-1893)
John Cameron, a Scotchman, was shipwrecked at Midway for eight months in 1888. He and two others left the island in a small boat and made Mili on November 25 of that year. After a week or two there, he went to Jaluit on the vessel "Ehukai." There he was employed by Crawford & Co. As the captain of the trade schooner "Ebon," he visited Kosrae and Pohnpei on trading voyages. On Pohnpei he was arrested and tried by Sapnish authorities for selling guns to the people, but was soon released. Returning to the Marshalls, he served as the master of vessels for Crawford on Jaluit for a time. In 1892 he left Crawford & Co. to trade on his own in the Gilbert Islands. Cameron had married the daughter of a chief from Mejit. Finally, in 1893, Cameron left the Pacific altogether. Years later he was the subject of a book about his experiences in the Pacific.
Adolph Capelle was born in Hanover, Germany, in 1838. He first came to the Marshalls on the "Pfeil," owned by Hoffschlaeger & Stapenhorst. He arrived on Ebon in 1859 at the age of 21. Capelle lived on the island for a time trading in coconut oil. In 1864, with the newly arrived Anton DeBrum as a partner, Capelle established his own trading company, A, Capelle & Co.
He married a woman from Ebon, Sophia.
In 1873, after living on Ebon for more than a decade, Capelle moved to Jaluit, which was becoming the center of commerce. With their fleet of several small ships, Capelle & Co. expanded trading operations throughout the Marshalls and even into the eastern Carolines. Capelle was in Chuuk for several months in 1879 while setting buildings for a trade station there. Capelle & Co. sold their copra to one of the larger trade vessels belonging to one of the major firms in the Pacific. For a time, Godeffroy & Son was the firm they served. The company had a large store on Jaluit. Capelle was the consular agent for the US during the years he was based on Jaluit.
James Lyle Young, an agent for another firm in the Marshalls, was unsparing of Capelle in his diary. Young writes that Capelle, once a lay preacher for the church, has backslidden. He claims that Capelle has a tendency to see everything from one point of view--"dollars and cents."
Capelle and DeBrum purchased the island of Likiep for about twelve hundred dollars worth of trade in 1878. Thereafter Capelle and DeBrum used this as a copra plantation and a homestead. With their sons, Capelle and DeBrum began building small ships and started a variety of other businesses. Thereafter, Likiep became their base of operations.
Capelle died about 1911.
Sources: Young 1878: 8 July 1876; LeHunte 1883a: judicial proceedings, 2; Moore 1872: 16; Hezel 1983: 210-226, 252-254, 267-268, 302-304; ABCFM: R. Logan's letter of 1879.
H. CarrMajuro (1880-1883)
H. Carr was a young Englishman who worked on Majuro for Henderson & MacFarlane in 1883. He was described as "Smart, well-spoken....belonging to Streatham in Surrey." He may have stayed on Majuro for a couple of years. By 1885, however. he was trading in Melanesia for Read, another former Marshalls trader.
I.H. Clarke was the manager of the Henderson & MacFarlane trade station on Majuro in 1884.
Sources: Moore 1884
William ClarkePohnpei, Mili (1869-1870)
William Clarke was discharged from "Malolo" on Pohnpei in October 1869. He signed on "Malolo" again at Mili in 1870. He spent at least a few months on Pohnpei and perhaps a little time on Mili.
Sources: Bridges 1870
Frank CoffinPingelap, Majuro, Mili (1868-1876)
Frank Coffin was born in New Bedford, Massachusetts. He was a seaman on "Blossom" in 1867 and was put ashore in Pingelap about 1868 as a trader for Ben Pease. He was apparently an old man at the time. He complained that he was tormented during his stay there and finally left the island a few months later with another trader on Capelle's schooner. He came to Majuro in the same year and continued trading for Ben Pease. At some point, he moved to Mili, where he lived for a short time in 1876. He was reportedly forced to leave Mili after exhibiting his false teeth and frightening people into thinking that he was a demon. He returned to Majuro where he later died of a sickness that he had contracted on Pingelap.
Sources: Restieaux 1869: 5-7; Dana 1935: 53-4; Browning 1972: 36; Bridges 1870: 10 Jan 1869
Dick ColePohnpei, Ebon (1890)
Dick Cole was a trader for Crawford & Co. living on Pohnpei in 1890.
Sources: Farrell 1928: 347
W. E. ColeMajuro, Pohnpei, Kosrae (1877-1880)
W. E. Cole was born in 1848. He was a trader on Majuro in December 1877. He next showed up on Pohnpei for a time in early 1880, but he apparently lived on Kosrae at this time. He died of fever aboard "Mathilde" on his way back to Kosrae--his home in later years--on April 10, 1880. He left a "white" (although perhaps Samoan) wife and two small children. Cole's wife remained on Kosrae and was an agent for Capelle & Co. during the early 1880s.
Sources: Young 1881: 10 Apr 1889 and 12 Dec 1877
George CunninghamJaluit, Ebon, (c1860-1864)
George Cunningham was an American from New Bedford, Massachusetts. He was said to have lived on Ebon "for some years." It is uncertain when he arrived on Jaluit, but may have come about 1860. He purportedly was the instigator of the plunder of the German trading schooner "Maria" in January 1863 when it was wrecked while leaving Ebon. He lived under the protection of the paramount chief, Kaibuki, but when this chief died, Cunningham and "his gang of pirates" fled to Jaluit to live--probably in late 1863.
On Jaluit he and his gang robbed the trading station once, but on the second attempt he was shot and killed. This happened just prior to arrival of the "Morning Star" in February 28, 1864.
Dale was a British trader working on Majuro for Henderson & MacFarlane in June 1881.
Sources: Maxwell 1881
A man known only as Dan was reported to have come to Ebon sometime before 1857 and lived there for some time while supervising the pressing of cooking oil. He was said to have introduced domestic fowl to the island.
Sources: The Friend, 5 Mar 1859, 19
Anton Jose DeBrumLikiep, Ebon (1864-1877)
Anton Jose DeBrum was a Portuguese citizen, born in 1837 at Pico in the Azores. He came to the Pacific as a harpooner aboard an American whaler. Upon arriving at Ebon in 1864, he jumped ship and remained ashore. He formed a business partnership with Adolph Capelle in extracting coconut oil and selling it to European firms. In time, he and Capelle expanded their business, purchased and built a fleet of small schooners and set up a profitable copra business throughout the Marshalls. Edward Milne, and later Charles Ingalls, joined the partnership.
DeBrum bought Likiep in August 1877 for $1,250 worth of merchandise. A few months later DeBrum transferred the deed to Capelle & Co. for $886. Thereafter, DeBrum and his family would move to Likiep where they ran a coconut plantation and business.
DeBrum married a woman from Likiep shortly after his arrival. His first son, Joachim, was born in 1869. Young described Anton De Brum as a "very quiet unassuming man without much education -- the best man of the three partners"
Sources: Young 1878: 8 July 1876; McGrath 1973: 181-185; Browning 1972: 35
Devine was an Irishman serving as bookkeeper for Crawford & Co in 1888. He was probably living on Jaluit at this time.
Sources: Farrell 1928: 367
Karl DomnickJaluit (c1890-1915)
Domnick was born in 1860 in Bavaria. He came to Jaluit about 1890 with a German wife and his son Herman. He soon separated from his wife and married Augusta Becker, the daughter of Felix Becker and Mary Jacklick, a Marshallese woman. Karl and Augusta had four children. He served as ship captain for the Jaluit Company at first, and then become harbor master 1901. He also served as postmaster on Jaluit 1899-1904. From that time until his departure from the Marshalls, Domnick owned and operated the hotel "Germania" on Jaluit. He was finally deported by the Japanese on May 31, 1915. His Son Herman, who had married a Marshallese woman and had a child by her, was deported with him.
Sources: Dirk Spennemann, "Postage Stamps Used in the Marshall Islands" (website)
Charles DouglasArno (1866-1886)
Charles Douglas was a British seaman who sailed with a man of war before leaving the ship in Australia and joining a bunch of bushrangers. He then signed on a whaler but deserted in Niutau, where he lived for a while as a trader. He came to Arno in about 1866 and lived there for over twenty years. Among other things, he helped rescue "Black Tom" Tilton and Westbrook from the anger of the local people in 1877. He served as an agent for Capelle & Co. during the early 1880s. He also served as a pilot on Arno. During the late 1880s he returned to Niutau to live. In 1892 he died after taking a fall on a visiting vessel.
Sources: Young 1878: 2 July1876; Maxwell 1881; LeHunte 1883a: 21; Dana 1935: 247-8; Thurston 1885; Moss 1889: 74-5
Dunn was a trading living on Majuro in 1884.
Sources: Moore 1884
J. T. ElsonMaloelap (1877)
Elson was living on Maloelap in 1877. He was a witness for DeBrum on the deed attesting to the purchase of Likiep.
Dominique Etscheit was born in Ehrenbreitstein, Rhineland. Dominique's father was a lawyer who worked for a title, landed family. He left Germany in 1871 for England to learn English. Sailing by way of Australia, he first arrived in the Pacific in 1884 to work as a trader. He lived in the Marshalls at first, supporting himself by trade. There he took a Marshallese woman as his wife, but she died in Manila not long afterwards. In 1886, according to a German deed, he bought Ulul Island in Chuuk and attempted to set up a plantation there. When this failed, he moved to Pohnpei to settle there permanently. By this time he had married a Belgian woman by the name of Florence Caymont, who became the manager of his estate when he died. In 1899 Etscheit purchased Jan Kubary's landholdings on Pohnpei, a few years after the death of the latter. Two of his children, Leo and Carlos, adopted their mother's Belgian citzenship and remained on Pohnpei until their death, while another son, Robert, and a daughter, Ella, returned to Europe.
Sources: AHN 5863, ff 238-239; letter of Alan Hughes, 22 Nov 1993; interview with Carlos Etscheit, 16 Nov. 1981
Thomas FarrellMajuro, Ebon (1876-1877)
Thomas Farrell, an Auckland merchant, brought his brig "Vision" to the Marshalls, by way of Samoa, in 1876 to engage in the copra trade. He intended to open a string of trading stations in the islands. He opened his first station on Majuro, but it failed the next year. He set up a second trading station at Ebon, but it also failed. Farrell spent no longer than a year in the Marshalls in all.
Farrell moved to Bismarck Archipelago after leaving the Marshalls. He later managed the Godeffroy firm in New Ireland.
Thomas Fleming "Jim Gordon"Ujae, Lae, Majuro (c1880-1918)
Thomas Fleming was a Scotchman known as "Jim Gordon." He was a soldier in the US and a hotel-keeper in Japan before coming to the Marshalls. He worked as a trader on Ujae and Lae before coming to Majuro. He returned to US, but eventually came back to Majuro. The Marshallese called him Jim Korn. He married Likojene and they had 5 children: Maggie, Herman, Daisy, Henry adn Martha. He died there in 1918.
Sources: Chave 1947: 48-49
Folliot was trading for Hernsheim Co. on Namorik in April 1877.
Sources: Young 1878: 17 Apr 1877
J. A. FraserArno, Jaluit (1877)
J. A. Fraser landed in Marshalls to fit out a schooner in 1877, He spent a few months on Arno and then went to Jaluit for a time. Soon after he received his captains's license, he moved on to Fiji.
Sources: Dana 1935: 280-1
Henry FreemanJaluit (1878-1880)
Henry Freeman was a government agent for recruiting laborers from the Gilbert Islands. He was based on Jaluit in 1878-1880, but visited other islands in the area on labor vessels. He was implicated in coercion of Gilbertese aboard the ships.
Sources: Bennett 1976: 1
Henry Gardner (aka John H. Oldham)Jaluit, Ujelang, Nukuoro, Pohnpei (1868-1890?)
Henry Gardner was an American trader. Gardner was born in 1830. He was an interpeter aboard the "Water Lily" in 1868 during its cruise to the Gilbert Islands. He was left on Jaluit in April 1868 by "Malolo" to take charges of Ben Pease's station there. He replaced Robert Keyser who was taken off the island by "Malolo" for the murder of Lewis, another trader. Gardner worked for Pease until 1870 and then testified to USS "Jamestown" on Pohnpei for Pease's crimes. For a short time Gardner lived on Pohnpei. In 1871, Gardner went to Ujelang to trade for Bully Hayes. He was still in the Marshalls, probably still living on Ujelang, in 1874.
Gardner is said to have had something of a conversion, changed his name to "John Oldham," became a strong supporter of the Protestant church, and spent the rest of his life on Pohnpei. He was living on Nukuoro as a trader in August 1884. By 1887 he was back on Pohnpei, where he took care of Rev. Doane during the latter's illness in 1890.
Sources: Goodenough 1875; Bridges 1870; US Consuls 1906: Dispatch 456, sub 8, encl 3, testimony of Gardner; LeHunte 1883a: statement of Charles Ingalls; PNA leg 13, exp 42; "The Friend" 48.5 (May 1890)
Goddard was trading for Capelle Co. on Ebon in early 1877.
Sources: Young 1878: 15 Mar 1877
H. GrosserJaluit (1880-1883)
H. Grosser was a German agent for Hernsheim Co. residing on Jaluit 1880-1883.
Sources: Hernsheim 1983: 77; Thurston 1885
James HaggertyMili, Jaluit (1877-1880)
James Haggerty was a trader on Mili in Dec 1877. He was living on Jaluit in April 1880.
Sources: Young 1878: 15 Dec 1877; Young 1881: 21 Apr 1880.
Dick HamiltonAur, Pingelap (1867-1868)
Dick Hamilton was an Australian who was put ashore on Aur as a trader in late 1867 by "Blossom." He worked for Ben Pease on Aur for a few months, but was taken off the island by a trade vessel after he and another white trader, Hughes, were poisoned by the people of Aur. He then went to Pingelap to work as an agent for Pease. His trade stock and all his belongings were stolen by the people, he claimed, and he was taken off Pingelap by one of Capelle's schooners after just a few months there.
Sources: US Consuls 1906: Dispatch 456 encl 5, testimony of Francis Coffin & encl 8, statement of Ben Pease; Restieaux 1869: 5-7; Shineberg 1971: 209
G. HankerJaluit (1880-1883)
G. Hanker, a German national, was an agent for Hernsheim & Co. He was residing on Jaluit 1880-1883.
Bully (William Henry) Hayes was born in Cleveland. He traded in the Marshalls and vicinity during the early 1870s with his rendezvous at Mili. He stationed traders at many of the islands in eastern Micronesia, cheating them when opportunity arose. Hayes soon moved into blackbirding, sailing from island to island recruiting plantation workers from the local population. In early 1874 Hayes was stranded on Kosrae for several months after his vessel "Leanora" was grounded there. For the remainder of the year he used Kosrae as base of his operations. Hayes was arrested in early 1875 when he turned up on Guam and was accused of smuggling prisoners off the island. After a few months in a Manila jail, Hayes returned to the US for a short time. On his return voyage, in March 1877, Hayes was killed by one of his crew in an argument aboard the "Lotus."
Sources: Moore 1872; Clune 1970; Hezel 1983: 233-237
George F. HazardMili, Ebon, Jaluit, Namorik, Pohnpei (1867-1883)
George F. Hazard was an American trader who came from a prominent family of whaling captains in New England. He came to the area in the 1860s sometime. He was mate of Ben Pease's "Blossom" in 1867. Soon afterwards he was trading on Mili for Pease. When Pease robbed his station in 1869, Hazard moved to Ebon. During the early 1870s he worked as a blacksmith for Capelle and lived on Jaluit. In 1876 he was hired to work for Farrell as a trader on Jaluit. Not longer afterwards he was brought to Namorik to trade for Farrell on that island, but he returned to Jaluit in November 1877. In the early 1880s (1880-1883) he was living on Pohnpei, where he served as an agent for Capelle & Co.
Sources: Farrell 1928: 335; Restieaux 1869; Young 1878: 10 July & 17 July 1876; US Consuls 1906: Dispatch 456, encl 2, letter of G.F. Hazard; Thurston 1885
Herculane was a Portuguese trader living on Ebon in August 1884. He was married to a Portuguese woman and working for Jaluit Company.
Sources: Moore 1884
Eduard HernsheimJaluit (1877-1879)
Eduard Hernsheim, a German trading captain who had first come to the Pacific about 1870, founded his own trading company. He first came to the Marshalls in 1877. Working out of Jaluit for a time, he established his headquarters there and sailed to the other islands in the area to recruit traders for his new company. In early 1879 he left the Marshalls and moved to Melanesia.
Sources: Hernsheim 1983: 36-37, 51
Franz HernsheimJaluit (1878-1885)
Franz Hernsheim, a German national and brother of the trader Eduard Hernsheim, came to Jaluit in February 1878. He lived there and served as German Consul. He was still on Jaluit in 1885 at the German acquisition of the Marshalls, but left the island in January 1886 to return to Europe.
Sources: Hernsheim 1983: 38, 43, 98
John H. HeslopMili, Ebon (1871-1877)
John H. Heslop was a British sea captain and trader living on Mili in 1871. The next year he was still on Mili trading for Bully Hayes. For the next few years he was serving as the master of the "Jimata" for Capelle & Co. before the wreck of the schooner in 1875. In late 1876 he was piloting another ship, "Agnes Donald" through the Marshalls. The following year he became the master of the schooner "Fortune," owned by some Marshallese chiefs. He spent several months, from July to November 1877, laying over at Ebon. Heslop was reportedly "frightfully drunk" most of the time. When the schooner he captained was repossessed by Farrell's creditors, he left Ebon.
Sources: Young 1878: 15 Dec 1876; Pitman 1872; Moore 1872
Charles HowardMili (1871)
Charles Howard, from Sydney, worked for a year or two as a seaman board the "Leonora" of Bully Hayes. He was discharged from the ship in 1871 and put ashore on Mili to work as a trader.
Sources: Meade 1872
John HughesAur (1867-1868)
John Hughes was the chief officer on ben Pease's vessel "Blossom" in 1867. He was stationed on Aur in that year to work as a trading agent for Pease. He was sixty years old at that time. Hughes was robbed of his possessions and his trade goods by the people, who also poisoned him. Hughes died on Aur in 1868.
Sources: US Consuls 1906: Dispatch 456, encl 5, testimony of Francis Coffin & encl 8, statement of Ben Pease
John HughesJaluit (1878)
John Hughes was living on Jaluit in January 1878. He was working for Hernsheim Company as a clerk. [This John Hughes is not to be confused with the trader of the same name who lived on Aur duing the 1860s.]
Sources: Young 1878: 5 Jan 1878
Jim HumphreyNamorik (1875-1876)
Jim Humphrey (variously spelled "Umphrey" or "Jumpfer") was a German working for Capelle & Co. He lived and traded on Namorik in 1875 and 1876.
Sources: Young 1878: 17 July 1876; Colcord 1875: 43
A trader called Ike was living on Majuro and working for Capelle & Co. in December 1871.
Sources: Pitman 1872
Charles H. IngallsMajuro, Pohnpei (1876-1880?)
Charles Ingalls was a young American physician who was living in Samoa when he was brought by Bully Hayes to Micronesia. In 1875 Hayes brought him to cure the chief of Butaritari, according to one version of the story, but another source says that he came up intending to practice medicine on Jaluit. Ingalls worked on Jaluit for Farrell's company for a short time, but signed on for Capelle & Co. as a trader on Majuro in 1876. In 1880 he was sent by Capelle & Co. to Pohnpei to work as an agent for the company there. Sometime after this he went into partnership with Capelle and DeBrum.
Sources: LeHunte 1883a: statement of Charles Ingalls; Thurston 1885; Young 1878: 24 June & 10 July 1876; Hernsheim 1983: 33; Clune 1970: 145-146
Jimmy the FrenchmanMili (1867-1868)
Jemmy the Frenchman (who may have actually been a Greek) was a trader on Mili in 1867. When Jemmy was discharged that year by his previous employer, he was Ben pease for a job and was placed on another island in the Marshalls. He soon ran afoul of Pease, however, when he sold coconut oil to Capelle.
Sources: Restieaux 1869
Robert KeyserJaluit (1867-1868)
Robert Keyser, a German, was living on Jaluit in 1867. He worked as a trading agent for Ben Pease, but soon was involved in a bitter altercation over a girl with another trader by the name of Lewis. When Keyser killed Lewis, he was taken off the island as a prisoner by one of Pease's ships and soon afterwards was sent to San Francisco.
John S. KubaryPohnpei, Palau, Yap, Nukuoro, Mortlocks, Chuuk, Jaluit (1869-1896)
John S. Kubary was a native of Poland, but a naturalized British citizen. Since 1869 he travelled in the Pacific as a naturalist for Godeffroy Co. He lived in Samoa for six months at the end of 1869, then travelled to Marshalls on "Sofia" in April 1870. In August 1870, Kubary went to Yap, where he spent five months. In January 1871, he went to Palau, staying there for more than two years. In May 1873, he sailed on "Iserbrook" visiting Ulithi, Ngulu, Woleai, Nukuoro, and Mortlocks, arriving in Pohnpei in August 1873. He left Pohnpei a year later in August 1874 on "Alfred" which went aground and went down with many of his specimens. Kubary spent some weeks on Jaluit before sailing for New Zealand in December 1874. After spending some months in Europe during 1875, he sailed back to the Pacific. In late 1875, he stopped at Pohnpei, built a house and established a plantation.
In February 1877 he set out for the Mortlocks where he spent a few months--until the end of May. In May 1878, a year later he left for Chuuk and remained there until August 1879.
He returned to Pohnpei and married Anna Yellot. When the company crashed, Godeffroy & Sons released Kubary, who turned to his plantation. His plantation was destroyed by a typhoon in 1882 and he worked in Tokyo for a few months. He returned to Pohnpei, visited Palau again in early 1883 and remained in the western Carolines until 1885. In September 1885 Kubary went aboard "Albatross" to New Britain and New Guinea. He remained at work in Melanesia until 1892 when he went to Germany for a few months.
He returned to New Guinea and worked there until 1895 when he settled again in Pohnpei. He found that his plantation had been devastated in the uprising against the Spanish. In October 1896, a few months after his return, Kubary committed suicide on the grave of his only son. A daughter was sent to Singapore to be educated in a convent school and later became a nun.
Evan Lewis was a Welshman, born in 1855. In the 1870s he served as an engineer on a steam launch that operated in Samoa under Captain Heinburger. He lived on Jaluit for a while. Came to Palau on the brig "Susannah" to trade for Capelle & Co, along with David Martens, his partner. After a quarrel with Martens, Lewis came to Yap where he settled for a time. His first arrival in Yap must have been during the late 1870s. He also spent time on Palau as an agent for Capelle & Co. He arrived in Palau on "Susannah", perhaps as early as 1876 but certainly before 1880. He left for Pohnpei aboard the "Matilda" in 1880. He returned to Yap later that year and went almost directly to Lamotrek, where he served as resident trader from 1880 to 1883. Lewis married a Chamorro woman and had a large family by the time F. W. Christian met him in the early 1890s. Lewis was living in Yap, working in Ngingich, but doing trading runs to the outer islands now and then.
Lewis was described in a statement given aboard the British naval ship "Espiegle" in 1883: "Lewis is aged 28, medium height, light build, dark hair, good looking, has some education, knows navigation, well behaved but drinks."
Sources: LeHunte 1883a: statement of Charles Ingalls; Young 1881: 20 Oct 1880; Christian 1967: 238
P. L'OrangeJaluit (1880-1884)
P. L'Orange was a German trader working for Capelle & Co. He was Capelle's main agent on Jaluit from 1880 until February 1884, when he left on the bark "Musea" for Lisbon.
Sources: Swanston 1885: Vol 6, 19 Feb 1884; Thurston 1885
Otto LoserMaloelap (1877)
Otto Loser was a German trader living on Maloelap in 1877. He was a witness to the signing of the land deed for the purchase of Likiep by Anton DeBrum.
Sources: Mason 1946: Appendix A
Louis ?? (aka Louis the Frenchman)Majuro (1870?)
Louis the Frenchman" (his last name is unknown) was from Paris. He lived for a while in New Caledonia before his arrival in Micronesia. He was deposited on Majuro in the early 1870s by a French sloop that put in at that island. He was attacked by the people and nearly killed before Burlingham, a trader on the island, came to his rescue. The man was said to have been an excellent swordsman, well-educated, and a first-rate surgeon. Two years after his arrival he died of an internal illness.
Sources: Dana 1935: 55-59
James LowtherMili (1871-1880?)
James Lowther, an Englishman, was living on Mili in 1871 and 1872. He was trading for Towns & Co. of Sydney. He reported that he was robbed of his coconut oil and trade stock by Bully Hayes. It seems that Lowther remained in the Marshalls trading until the end of the 1870s. By 1880 he had moved to Nonouti in Kiribati, where he was a resident trader.
Sources: Moore 1872: 12; Bridges 1870; Thurston 1885
W. N. LyttletonEbon (1877)
W. N. Lyttleton was British, the nephew of a respected lord, who had been in the Pacific for some years before his arrival in the Marshalls. He had lived in Fiji until his "clandestine departure from that group in 1873." He arrived on Ebon in November 1877 with plans to learn the Marshallese language and prepare himself for diplomatic service. A trader living on the island at the time of his arrival writes of him: "He is most eccentric in manner and perhaps of a weak mind." The same trader predicted that Lyttleton would "probably starve to death or else commit suicide (if he be not first killed by the natives)." Lyttleton left Ebon within a short time. He was killed in New Britain in June 1881.
Sources: Young 1878: 13 Nov 1877 & June 1881
MacBride. an Englishman, was living on Majuro in June 1881. He was a trader for Henderson & MacFarlane.
Sources: Maxwell 1881
Isaac E. MadisonMaloelap, Likiep, Jaluit (1864-1888)
Isaac E. Madison came to the Marshalls in 1864. He was living on Maloelap in 1877 when he witnessed to the purchase of Likiep by DeBrum. He also acted as interpreter to the Marshallese chiefs. He was living on Jaluit in January 1878, probably working for Capelle & Co. From 1886 on he lived on Likiep.
Sources: Mason 1946
Lope MartinUjelang (1566)
Lope Martin and twenty-seven other mutineers from the Spanish ship "San Jeronimo" put in at an island that answers to the description of Ujelang. They arrived in June 1566 and lived on the island for two months until a few of the men retook the ship and put to sea, stranding Martin and his fellow conspirators. The Spanish mutineers were thought to have been killed by the local people within the next year or two.
Sources: Sharp 1961: 125-141
Johann Edward MeyerJaluit (1880-1890)
Johann Edward Meyer was a German trader on Jaluit in 1880. He lived there until 1890 when he moved to the Gilberts. He worked for Hernsheim.
Sources: Thurston 1885; Browning 1972: 37
Miller was living on Jaluit in April 1880. He had no work and was living as a beachcomber.
Sources: Young 1881: Apr 1880
John MillisEbon (1877)
John Millis, formerly the mate of the schooner "Fortune," came to Ebon in February 1877 to trade for Farrell. He left Ebon on March 19 to trade in the Carolines.
Sources: Young 1878: 5 Feb 1877
Edward J. MilneJaluit (1866-877)
Edward J. Milne was a Scotsman, the son of a Presbyterian minister. He was born in 1831, was educated in Europe, and was roaming the Pacific by his mid-twenties. He lived in New Caledonia in 1858 and narrowly escaped with his life after supplying arms for the local people. He was living at Erromanga Island in 1861, and then spent some time in Queensland and Samoa. He first came to the Marshalls in 1866 in a small schooner and was soon hired by Capelle to serve as supercargo on one of their vessels. Based on Jaluit, he was captain of the schooner "Jimata" for some time, but was then taken on as a third partner by Capelle and DeBrum. Thereafter he spent most of his time at the Capelle offices on Jaluit.
Milne was very well educated. He was also a good accountant and was able to navigate a ship. In addition, he spoke several Polynesian dialects. He drank heavily, however, and was prone to quarrel with his employees. He was married to a Gilbertese woman and had six children. He died on Jaluit on August 10, 1877.
Sources: Young 1878: 8 July 1876 & 23 Sept 1877; Restieaux 1869; Moore 1872: 8
Paul MitchellJaluit, Mili (1888-1890)
Paul Mitchell was a Chilean who was in charge of the Jaluit Co. station on Mili in November 1888 when John Cameron arrived. Mitchell was driven out of business by a competitor in 1890 and worked out his debt as a day laborer on Jaluit afterwards.
Sources: Farrell 1928: 328-30
James Montsenson (or Mortinson)Arno (1880-1884)
James Mortenson (variously written Mortison or Mortinson) was a British trader working for Henderson & MacFarlane on Arno from 1880 to at least 1884.
Sources: Moore 1884; Maxwell 1881; Thurston 1885
Henry MoorsJaluit (c1879-1880)
Harry Moors was an agent for Hernsheim based on Jaluit about 1880. He was working for Henry Freeman in recruiting and shipping Gilbertese laborers to the plantations in Hawaii.
Sources: Bennett 1976: 15
Morgen was a Danish trader working for Hernsheim on Jaluit during the years 1880-1883.
Sources: Thurston 1885
Muller was a German trading for Capelle & Co. on Arno during the years 1880-1883.
Sources: Thurston 1885
Murlocks was an Englishman trading on Ebon for Henderson & MacFarlane in June 1881.
Sources: Maxwell 1881
E. OhlsenMajuro (1880-1883)
E. Ohlsen, a Swede, was an agent for Henderson & MacFarlane working on Majuro 1880-1883.
Sources: Thurston 1885
W. PerkinsJaluit (1880-1883)
W. Perkins was an American residing on Jaluit during the years 1880-1883. He was an independent trader.
Sources: Thurston 1885
W. RathrayMajuro (1880-1883)
W. Rathray was an Englishman working as a trading agent on Majuro for Henderson & MacFarlane in the years 1880-1883.
Sources: Thurston 1885
P. Reed (or Read)Majuro (1876-1884?)
P. Reed [sometimes spelled Read] was an Englishman living on Majuro. In 1876 he was trading for Hernsheim. During the years 1880-1883 he was the agent for Henderson & MacFarlane on the same island. He apparently left Majuro shortly after this, however, for he seems to have been in Melanesia by 1885.
Sources: Young 1878: 24 June 1876; Maxwell 1881; Thurston 1885; Hernsheim 1983: 97
John ReesKapingamarangi, Chuuk, Faraulep, Nukuoro, Marshalls, Yap (1877-1883?)
John Rees, a Welshman, first came to Micronesia in 1877 as mate of the "Tetuila." He had been in Samoa previous to this. He may have stayed with the ship in the Marshalls for the first year, but in 1878 he moved to Pohnpei as an agent for Capelle & Co. He stayed on Pohnpei for an indefinite period of time before moving to Nukuoro in June 1880. There he found a wife, Nuli, whom he took with him to his other posts. He may have also visited Kapingamarangi at this time. He supposedly also spent two months in Yap--September to November 1880. In June 1881, he moved to the Mortlocks to work as an agent at the same time that George Barrows was trading on Namoluk. In 1882 Rees left the Mortlocks and returned to Kapingamarangi. While there he reputedly had his trading rival, George Barrows, drowned by the local people and Barrows' two Gilbertese helpers killed. Rees left Kapingamarangi for Pohnpei on the "Beatrice" and then shipped aboard the "Caroline" as its mate. He was wrecked in Faroulep in 1883 and forced to remain on that island for a time. There is no word of him after that.
Rees was described as "a middle-aged man, nostrils affected by syphilitic cancer, tattoed with an elephant dancing girl, has the appearance of a heavy drinker--swaggering gait--wear rings--ears pierced...usually dressed in shirt, trousers and monkey jacket--slouched straw hat without ribbon--shirt open at the breast." [Deryck Scarr, "Fragments of Empire," 118]
Sources: LeHunte 1883a: 28, 55, statement of James Curry, statement of Ilaisa Mativa; Westwood 1905: 135-139
W. ReickeMajuro (1880-1883)
W. Reinicke, a German, was living on Majuro and working as an agent for Hernsheim in the years 1880-1883.
Sources: Thurston 1885
Reid lived on Jaluit in 1890-1891 and was manager of Crawford & Co. station there. The firm failed in 1891.
Sources: Farrell 1928: 389-90
Robert ReimersMarshalls (1885)
Robert Reimers was a German trader who came to the Marshalls about 1885 and worked there for a time. He left his wife and son there on a voyage to other parts and was never heard of again. Perhaps it was he who was killed in February 1903 in Aua in Bismarck Archipelago with two Chinese assistants and some laborers after opening graves to recover valuables buried with corpses.
Sources: Sack & Clark 1980: 105
Alfred RestieauxMili, Pohnpei, Pingelap (c1869-1872)
Alfred Restieaux was a Londoner of French descent who came to the Pacific at the age of twelve. He spent time in Australia, Peru and the western United States before sailing to honolulu. There he was signed on by a trading firm and brought to the Marshalls. Restieaux lived on Mili as a trading agent for nine months in the late 1860s. When his firm sold out to a Shanghai company, Ben Pease brought him to Pohnpei to trade for him. Restieaux worked for Pease on Pohnpei until the company folded. In August 1871, Bully Hayes took Restieaux aboard the "Leonora" and put him on Pingelap as a resident trader. Restieaux stayed until May 1872, when he was taken by Hayes to Samoa by way of Kosrae, Pingelap and Ujelang. Restieaux lived in Samoa until his death in November 1911.
Sources: Dana 1935: 120-124, 189-196; Munro 1987: 96; Restieaux 1869
Peter RietdykPohnpei, Marshalls (1879-1880)
Peter Rietdyk (Dutch Pete) was a Norwegian who lived in the Marshalls for a time in the late 1870s. In June 1880 he was living ashore on Pohnpei. He was the cook who killed Bully Hayes aboard "Lotus" in 1877 on a voyage to Micronesia. He must have decided to spend the rest of his life in Micronesia rather than face the law in the US. He supposedly drowned while on a trading voyage a few years later, perhaps in the early 1880s.
Charles RobertsMili, Majuro, Satawan, Pohnpei, Mokil (1871-1884)
Charles Roberts was born in Exeter, England. He was the first mate of the "Neva" in 1870-1871 as the ship made trading stops in the Marshalls. In November 1871 he was put ashore on Mili as an agent for Bully Hayes. He then moved to Majuro, probably working as an agent there, and he met the "Neva" at Majuro in April 1872. Roberts moved to Pohnpei about 1873 and began working there as an agent for Capelle & Co. He spent the next several years working on Pohnpei, but with shorter periods of time on some of the outliers in the area. In January 1880, for instance, he was living on Mokil while trading, but by November of that year he had returned to Pohnpei. Roberts was married to John Rees' former wife, a half-caste Samoan by the name of Elaisa Mativa. He moved to Satawan to trade in May 1884, but he only remained there for six months.
Sources: Young 1881: Jan & Nov 1880; Pitman 1872: Apr 1872 ; Browning 1972: 1, 35. LeHunte 1883a: 16, 42; Thurston 1885
A. RobertsonJaluit (1880-1881)
A. Robertson was an Englishman living on Jaluit in 1880 and 1881. While he was working for Hernsheim, Robertson also served as the Acting German Consul in the Marshalls.
Sources: Maxwell 1881; Letter of A. Robertson, 11 June 1880; WPHC (Fiji) 146/80
Robinson was Hernsheim's commercial agent on Jaluit in 1880.
Sources: Bennett 1976: 15
RobsartMili, Majuro (1881-1883)
Robsart, an American black, was living on Majuro in June 1881 trading for Capelle & Co. In 1883 he was on Mili working for Henderson & MacFarlane.
Sources: Maxwell 1881; Thurston 1885
Russ was a German working for Hernsheim. He was their resident trader on Ebon in August 1884.
Sources: Moore 1884
Jack SandbergenMili (1876)
Jack Sandbergen was Dutch. He was a trader working on Mili for Hernsheim in 1876 at the arrival of brig "Vision" in June. He was said to have purchased land on Mili.
Sources: Young 1878: 14 June 1876
J. H. SaundersJaluit (1883)
J. H. Saunders (sometimes spelled Sanders) was a German living on Jaluit in 1883. He ran a tavern on the island.
Hermann Severin, a German, was living on Jaluit as a beachcomber in April 1880. In August 1884 he was working as a trade agent on Arno. He had a stock of twenty rifles for sale to the local people.
Sources: Young 1881: 21 Apr 1880; Moore 1884
Frank SherlockEbon, Jaluit, Namorik (1876-1878)
Frank Sherlock, an Englishman, was born in 1848. He was a seaman on the British man-of-war "Barrosa" before he arrived in the Marshalls. He was living on Jaluit in 1876 and working on Hernsheim's schooner "Coeran" when Farrell hired him as a trading agent. He was brought to Ebon in July 1876 to serve as resident trader there for Farrell's firm. In January 1878 he was still living in the Marshalls and had just signed on for two years as an agent for Hernsheim at Namorik.
Sources: Young 1878: 10 & 29 July 1876, 9 Jan 1878
John SimpsonMili (1877)
John Simpson was a trader on Mili in 1877 and perhaps before. He signed on "Lotus" as mate in December 1877.
Sources: Young 1878: 9 Jan 1878
John SmithMili, Jaluit (1869-1880)
John Smith, a Prussian, was living on Mili in May 1870. He came aboard the USS "Jamestown". He worked for Pease for ten months in late 1869 and early 1870. By May 1870 Smith had left the employ of Pease but was still living in the Marshalls. At some point he moved to Jaluit, where he was living in April 1880.
Sources: Truxtun 1870; US Consuls 1906: Dispatch 456 encl 3, testimony of John Smith; Young 1881: Apr 1880
Philip SouthwickMajuro (1867-1876)
Philip Southwick, an American, was sometimes called "The Cooper." He was a seaman on the "Blossom" in 1867. By June 1876, he was living "among the natives" at the west end of Majuro. He was not trading for any company.
Sources: Young 1878: 24 June 1876; Restieaux 1869
R. S. SwanstonYap, Jaluit (1882-1884)
R. S. Swanston was born on December 16, 1825. Swanston shipped about the Pacific when he was young. He spent at least two years (1856-1857) in Samoa. In June 1882 he came to Jaluit "to get as far as possible from civilization". He worked there as an agent of Capelle & Co. until Feb. 12, 1883. He left for Yap at this time on the "Maria Louisa" and lived there for over a year as a trader for Capelle & Co. He departed Yap in May 1884.
Sources: Swanston 1885: Feb 1883-May 1884
"Scandalous Jim"Pohnpei, Kosrae, Ebon (1853)
Scandalous Jim" deserted from a whaleship about 1853 and lived on Pohnpei. Later he went ot Kosrae and Ebon for a while, but returned to Pohnpei on "Pfeil" in 1864. He went to Ant Island as trader at that time. He was murdered by another trader named Bill in 1865.
Sources: The Friend, Dec 1865, 91
W. TennantYap, Majuro (1878-1881)
W. Tennant was a Scotsman who practiced carpentry. He was brought from Singapore to Yap by O'Keefe in 1878. He remained on Yap only three months before leaving on the brig "Vision." His rapid departure was blamed by other traders on O'Keefe, who was said to have stolen his carpentry tools. He must have gone to the Marshalls from Yap, since he was working on Majuro as a trader for Hernsheim Co. in June 1881.
Sources: LeHunte 1883a: statement of John McGuiness; Hong Kong Telegraph, 25 Apr 1885; Maxwell 1881
Thomas "Black Town" TiltonJaluit, Arno (1875-1883)
Thomas "Black Town" Tilton was born in 1812. He was a runaway slave from Southern Delaware who shipped on a whaler as a cook and jumped ship at Samoa in the late 1850s. He was deported from Samoa for robbery and came to Jaluit in "Mary Ann" in 1875. He worked as a cook for Capelle. The following year, in July 1876, he moved to Arno with his wife and ran a store. When he antagonized the people of Arno, he was wounded and forced to flee for his life in 1877. He bought the "Lotus".
Sources: Swanston 1885: 2 June 1882; Dana 1935: 25-42; LeHunte 1883a: 23 & judicial proceedings; Young 1878: 1 July 1876; Humphrey 1887: 89-91
Charles TomlinsonArno, Majuro (1878-1919)
Charles Tomlinson was born in 1855. As an American seaman, he served aboard the "Sea King" in 1878 and "Claus Spreckels" from 1880-1881. He first came to live in the Marshalls, then he moved to the Gilberts. He returned to the Marshalls toward the end of the century, living on Arno, and then on Majuro. He died in 1919.
Sources: Chave 1947: 50-51.
Edward VowellJaluit, Pohnpei, Ulul (1878-1882)
Edward Vowell, an Englishman, served as a crew member on the trading ship "Lotus" in late 1877. He worked as an employee of Capelle & Co. on Jaluit from the beginning of 1878 through the end of 1880. Savaii, a native of Nukufitau, was with him during this period. He then came to Pohnpei in early 1881, but he does not seem to have stayed there long. He soon moved to Ulul with his Gilbertese wife. In June 1883 he was killed by two men from Pisarach living there. One story is that he was shot for his trade goods. Another version is that he was killed in a quarrel that broke out over his wife.
Vowell was alleged to be an assumed name. He was described as "a quiet sober man, and his erect carriage and bearing generally led everyone who met him to suppose he was an ex-military officer."
Sources: Young 1878: 17 Dec 1877, 4 Jan 1878; LeHunte 1883a: statement of Charles Ingalls to the murder of George Barrows; Moore 1884
James WalshPohnpei, Majuro, Ebon (1868-1870)
James Walsh sailed from Shanghai with Pease as a mate on "Water Lily" in May 1868. He was left at "Magarow Is" (Majuro) to look after a wreck, but was later taken to Ebon by a passing schooner. He then went to Pohnpei where he lived ashore until June 1870, and possibly even later.
Sources: US Consuls 1906: Dispatch 456, statement in sub 2, encl 3
W. T. WawnSatawan, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Jaluit (1871-1874)
W. T. Wawn was a Briton who spent four years in Micronesia as a trader before leaving the area. He went to Kosrae as an agent for Bully Hayes and Lechat in October 1871. He lived with two others, Mac and Elsen, collecting beche-de-mer. He left Kosrae in January 1872 for Pohnpei where he stayed until June of that year working and living with Joe Kehoe. He then moved to Satawan in the Mortlocks as a copra trader for Godeffroy & Son. He was put ashore by the "Iserbrook" in June 1872 and taken off by the "Susanne" in January 1873. Wawn spent another two months on Pohnpei between October and December 1973, and a few months on Jaluit between May and October 1874.
Wawn then went to Samoa where he took command of a copra schooner in 1875. Thereafter, he had command of other vessels, but never lived in Micronesia again. He died on July 5, 1901, in Sydney.
Sources: Wawn 1874
B. WeimannJaluit (1883)
B. Weimann was acting German consular agent on Jaluit in 1883. He was a partner of Hernsheim in trading enterprise.
Sources: LeHunte 1883a: 23; Thurston 1885
George WestbrookArno, Pingelap, Mokil, Majuro (1877-1880)
George Westbrook was an Englishman who sailed to Auckland when he was still young. After a few years there, came aboard the brig "Vision" to the Marshalls in 1877. He spent eight months on Arno in 1877 working for "Black Tom" Tilton. He was tortured by the island people for his involvement with Tilton whom they hated. Westbrook later saved Tilton's life. Westbrook remained on Arno as adopted son of the chief until June 1878 when he was taken off by "Belle Brandon." He went to Pingelap to work as temporary trader for Henderson & MacFarlane. He spent one year there and in June 1879 was taken by the whaler "Fleetwing" to Mokil, where he was put ashore to trade. In early 1880, "Belle Brandon" took him off Mokil, stopped at Ponape and Lukunor, and brought him to Majuro. He lived ashore for 2 months, then took "Falcon" to the Gilberts and the South Pacific.
Sources: Dana 1935: 1-101; LeHunte 1883a: 16; PNA leg 13, exp 42; El Correo, Nov 1887
Weymann was a German manager of Hernsheim Co. operation on Jaluit. He was living there in 1883. He fell ill and left for San Francisco in early 1884 and died en route.
Sources: Hernsheim 1983: 77, 86
A British agent known only as William was working on Mili for Henderson & MacFarlane in the years 1880-1883.
Sources: Thurston 1885
Giles WilliamsMili (1871-1883)
Giles Williams was a British subject who began trading in Marshalls in 1871. For many years he lived and worked on Mili. At first Williams traded for Capt. Daly whose company was based in the Gilberts. Then he signed on as a trader on Mili for Bully Hayes in 1875. The following year he began trading for Capelle & Co. He was still living on Mili and trading for Capelle & Co. in 1883.
He was deeply in debt to Capelle & Co. for most of his time. Young says of him: "He evidently has more muscle than brain."
Sources: Young 1878: 14 June 1876; Maxwell 1881; LeHunte 1883a: 20; Thurston 1885
Wilson was a Swede who was trading on Mili for Hernsheim Co. in 1881.
Sources: Maxwell 1881
M. WoolfMajuro (1880-1883)
M. Woolf was a German agent for Capelle & Co. on Majuro, 1880-1883.
Sources: Thurston 1885
Jack WrightKosrae, Ebon (1878-1880)
Jack Wright, an American trader, was living on Kosrae for some time, but was evicted by the paramount chief in 1850. Apparently he returned to Kosrae much later, for he was on the island in 1878 as a trader for Hernsheim. He was accused by the missionaries of being "a miserable wretch, a drunkard, a liar, a thief and a sodomite." He was removed from Kosrae by Hernsheim and brought to Ebon in 1880. He later shot himself while on Ebon.
Sources: Hernsheim 1983: 66; Wilson 1850; ABCFM: Pease & Whitney to Clark, 26 Mar 1880