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1526 Spanish ship SANTA MARIA DE LA VICTORIA, commanded by Alonso de Salazar, the only surviving vessel of Loaysa's expedition. Aug 21: Sighted an island at 14� N that they named "San Bartolome" -- probably Taongi. [Sharp 1960: 11-3]

1529 Spanish ship FLORIDA, commanded by Alvaro de Saavedra, on his second attempt to recross the Pacific from the Moluccas. Sept 21: Stood off a group of islands from which several natives came off and hurled stones at his ship. These islands, named by him "Los Pintados," may have been Ujelang. Oct 1: Found another group of islands where he went ashore for 8 days. Exchanged gifts with natives and took on water. These islands, "Los Jardines," could be Eniwetok or Bikini. Brief account of his stay there. [Wright 1951: 109-10; Sharp 1960: 19-23]

1542 Spanish flagship SANTIAGO, together with SAN JORGE, SAN ANTONIO, SAN JUAN DE LETRAN, SAN CRISOBAL, AND SAN MARTIN, in the expedition under Ruy Lopez de Villalobos on their westward crossing of the Pacific. Dec 25: Sighted low islands thought to be Saavedra's "Los Reyes." Dec 26: Landed at low islands in 9 or 10� N where they took on wood & water. Called them "Islas del Coral." Jan 6: Sighted in the same latitude ten islets that they named "Los Jardines." These groups are difficult to identify, but Sharp believes they may have been Wotje, Kwajalein & Ujelang. [Sharp 1960: 27-9; Levesque 1992: I, 571]

1565 Spanish patache SAN LUCAS, commanded by Alonso de Arellano, of the Legazpi expedition. Jan 5: Came upon an island at 10� N where the ship almost went on the reef -- possibly Likiep. Jan 7: Found other islands in 9� N where they met fishermen in canoes and followed them ashore. Took on wood & water, gave gifts to the natives, and left the next morning. Named them "Dos Vecinos" -- probably Kwajalein. Jan 8: Lay off another island in 8 1/2� N. Natives swam out to assist them and traded, while people on shore carried weapons. Named the island "Nadadores" -- perhaps Lib. Brief description of the people's appearance & weapons. [Real Academia de Historia 1887: III, 3-9; Sharp 1961: 27-30]

Spanish flagship SAN PEDRO and two other vessels in expedition commanded by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi.Jan 9: Discovered an island at 10� N where the Spanish went ashore and traded with natives. Named it "Los Barbudos" -- possibly Mejit. Jan 10: Sighted another island that they named "Placeres" -- perhaps Ailuk, Sighted another, 10 leagues away, that they called "Pajares" -- perhaps Jemo. Jan 12: Sighted an island still in 10� N, called "Corrales" -- possibly Wotho. Jan 15: Sighted other low islands in 10� N -- perhaps Ujelang. Good description of the people on "Barbudos." [Filipiniana Book Guild 1965: 46-8, 91, 240; Sharp 1960: 36-9]

1566 Spanish ship SAN JERONIMO, commanded by Lope Martin after a mutiny in which Capt Pericon was killed. June 29: Sighted an uninhabited chain of 20 islands. July 1: Came upon another island group where they went ashore for water. July 3: Found another island group where they anchored and went ashore. Met natives who danced and sang for them, and exchanged gifts. July 6: Came upon another island at 91/2� N where they went ashore. Natives fled at their arrival. Ship remained there for several days, until a few sailors retook the ship and sailed away on July 21, leaving Martin and 27 mutineers stranded ashore on what was probably Ujelang. [Real Academia de H istoria 1887: 371 ff; Sharp 1961: 125-41]

1568 Spanish ships LOS REYES and TODOS SANTOS, under Alvaro de Mendana, on his return voyage to America during his first expedition. Sept 17: Came upon some shoals at 7� N which they called "San Mateo" -probably Ujelang. Went ashore and found chisel and some rope. [Sharp 1960: 47-8 ]

1625 Dutch ship EENDRACHT and ten other vessels of the Nassau Fleet, commanded by Adm Gheen Schapenham, on a voyage to the Moluccas. Jan 15: Sighted an island ten days before making Guam -- perhaps Taongi, the northernmost of Marshalls. [Burney 1803-1817: III, 33; Sharp 1960: 79]

1767 British ship DOLPHIN, Capt Samuel Wallis, on an expedition in the Pacific. Sept 3: Sighted two islands at about 11� N -- perhaps Rongerik & Rongelap. [Sharp 1960: 108- 9; Hawkesworth 1773: I, 277]

1788 British transport ships SCARBOROUGH, Capt William Marshall, and CHARLOTTE, Capt Thomas Gilbert, en route to Canton from Port Jackson. June 25: Sighted land at 5� 58'N, 172� 3'E that they named "Knox Is" -- Mili. A canoe with 25 natives came out to the ship and, after a long chant was sung, the natives boarded. They traded happily until a loose spanker accidentally knocked several overboard. Natives later returned to the ship and one tried to steal the head pump. June 26: Sighted Arno, thought to be two islands ("Daniel's & Pedder's"), and Majuro ("Arrowsmith's Is")I. June 27: Sighted Aur, called "Ibbetson's Is." June 28: Sighted Maloelap, called "Calvert's Is." June 29: Sighted Wotje or "Chatham's Is"after also seeing Erikub. June 30: Sighted Ailuk which was taken to be the "Pescadores Is." [Gilbert 1789: 34-45; Sharp 1960: 152-5]

1792 British merchantman ROYAL ADMIRAL, Capt Henry Bond, on a passage from Port Jackson to Canton. Dec 15: Sighted two small islands at 5� 35'N, 168�,13'E. Named them "Baring's Is" -- Namorik. Dec 16: Sighted several islets at 7� 20'N, 168� 23'E. Bore up to lard and saw natives on the beach. Called islands "Muskillo Group" -- Namu. [Stevens 1808: 685-6, 689; Sharp 1960: 173; East India Co 1761-1828: Log of Royal Admiral]

1794 British merchant ship, WALPOLE, Capt Thomas Butler, on voyage to China. Dec 13: Sighted an island group at 11� 43'N, 162� 42'E that was named "Brown's Range" -- Eniwetok. [Stevens 1808: 690-2]

1797 British merchantman BRITANNIA, Capt Thomas Dennet, on voyage to China. Sept 19: Sighted "Hunter Is" or Kili. Eight canoes came off with natives who wanted to trade breadfruit. Sept 20: Sighted "LamberL Is" or Ailinglapalap. Several canoes headed for the ship and natives were eager to trade. The ship did not stop, however. Sighted "Ross Is" or Namu the same day. Several natives came out while the ship stood off for a short time. Traded mats & skirts for iron hoop. Natives tried to knock off rudder chains, and one tore off a gallery rail. Sept 21: Sighted "Princess Is" at 8� 21'N, 167� 25'E -- Lib. Good description of natives' appearance, trade goods & canoes. [Stevens 1808: 693-6; Sharp 1960: 177-8]

1798 British snow HUNTER, Capt John Fearn, on passage from New Zealand to China Sea. Nov 16: Sighted Eniwetok and ran along the reef for a distance, surveying the reefs. [Stevens 1808: 699--702]

1799 British brig NAUTILUS, Capt Charles Bishop, on a fur-trading voyage from Northwest Coast to Australia and China. July 15-16: Sighted and charted Maloelap, called "George Bass Is." Next sighted and coasted Erikub or "Bishop's Reef" and Jemo or "Steep--To Is." [Roe 1967: xliv and maps; Sharp 1960:' 183 -- 4]

Ship ANN & HOPE of Providence, Capt Christopher Bentley, on a trading voyage to Canton. Dec 27: Sighted islands at 4� 29'N, 169� E -- almost certainly Ebon. Dec 28: Sighted three more small islands at 5� 30'N, 168� E -- probably Namorik. Dec 31: Sighted land at 8� 59'N, 166� 5'E --perhaps Lae. [Riesenberg 1974: 254; Carter 1800]

1803 British merchant ship ROLLA, Capt John Cummings, on voyage from Port Jackson to Canton. Oct 30: Sighted islands at 5� 41'N, 169�.27'E --possibly Mili. Sent a cutter ashore, but it could not land because of heavy surf. Nov 6: Sighted islands at 7� 12'N, 166� 40'E -probably Ailinglapalap. Six canoes came off the next day. "Natives friendly." [East India Co 1761-1828: Log of Rolla]

1804 British merchant ship OCEAN, Capt John Mertho, on voyage from Port Jackson to China. Nov 25: Sighted "Margaret Is" at 8� 52'N. On following day sighted the northernmost islet in the group which was put down as "Lydia Is" -- 9� 4'N, 165� 46'E. Possibly this was Ujae. A canoe with 16 natives, "of a more serious and sullen cast than Polynesians", came out to the ship. Nov 27: Sighted "Catherine Is" at 9� 14'N, 166� 2'E -- possibly Lae or Kwajalein. [East India Co 1761-1828: Log of Ocean; Sharp 1960: 186-7; Horsburgh 1817: II, 522]

1805 Ship HERALD of Salem, Capt Zachary Silsbee, on a trading voyage to China. Feb 26: Saw island at 5� 42'N, 166� 44'E which they called '"Herald Is" -- probably Namorik. [Silsbee 1805]

1807 British naval frigate HMS CORNWALLIS, Capt Charles Johnston, on passage from Sandwich Islands to Macao. Dec 22: Sighted a group of islands at 14� 30'N, 168� 42'E that they charted. Named them "Smyth's Is" -- Taongi. [Purdy 1814: 151, 154]

1809 British merchant brig ELIZABETH, Capt Patterson, on voyage from Port Jackson to China. Sighted Jaluit which they named "Bonham's Is." Four men in a canoe came alongside to trade: "stout, well-made men, and apparently friendly." Sighted Ailinglapalap which was called "Elmore's Is," and then Namu named "Patterson's Is." [Purdy 1814: 153-4]

1811 British merchant ship PROVIDENCE, Capt A. Barclay, on passage from Port Jackson to China. Nov 25: Sighted an island at 10� 9'N, 161� 16'E that was taken to be "Arrecifes." The island was later names "Providence" -- probably Ujelang. [East India Co 1761- 1828: Log of Providence]

1816 Russian brig RURICK and tender NADESHA, commanded by Lt Otto von Kotzebue, on his first scientific expedition through the Pacific. May 21: Lay off Utirik which they named "Kutusoff Is." A canoe came off and the timid but friendly natives invited the Russians to come ashore, but the ships sailed on the next day. May 22: Sighted Taka which was called "Suwaroff Is." [Kotzebue 1821: I, 172-8]

1817 Russian brig RURICK and tender NADESHA, commanded by Lt Otto von Kotzebue, on return from Beering Straits. Jan 1: Lay off Mejit, which they named "New Year's Is," for a day. Natives bartered aboard ship, but prevented the Russians from going ashore. Jan 6: Anchored off Wotje where they spent a full month. Russians had regular communications with the islanders, exchanged gifts, and left animals and plants there. Named the island "Romanzoff Is." Extensive description of islanders and their material culture. Feb 7: Sighted Erikub, but were unable to land. Feb 10: Put in at Maloelap or "Arakschejef." Spent two weeks there. Russians were well received -- feted and entertained by the "queen" -- until one of the sailors was caught with a native girl. Ships left soon after this. Feb 23: Lay off Aur or "Traversey" for three days. Found two natives of Woleai ashore. Russians refused an invitation to join a military expedition against Majuro, but gave the people iron weapons. Mar 1: Put in at Ailuk or "Krusenstern." Spent two weeks there. Kotzebue learned of infanticide practiced there and of the first ship contacts in Marshalls. Mar 13: Lay off Utirik and Taka ("Kutusoff" & "Suwaroff") for a day. Met the chief of the northern Ratak chain and was presented with a fishbone ornament. Kotzebue established the position of the Ratak chain and charted several of its islands. His account contains valuable ethnographic material on the Marshalls, along with drawings & maps. [Kotzebue 1821: II, 1-153]

Russian vessels RURICK and NADESHA, Lt Otto von Kotzebue, returned to Marshalls from Alaska. Oct 30: Anchored off Wotje for a few days. Finding the animals he had left previously gone and the garden destroyed, Kotzebue put more goats & cats ashore and replanted the garden. Nov 5: Lay off Likiep or "Count Hayden" for a day. Departed for Guam. [Kotzebue 1821: II, 206-25]

1824 Whaleship GLOBE of Nantucket, Capt Thomas Worth, put in at Mili on Feb 15 after a mutiny in which the master & mates were killed. Samuel Comstock, the chief mutineer, and nine others were killed by the natives of Mili and in quarrels among themselves. Six of the crew members stole away in Globe by night. Globe eventually made safe passage to Valparaiso. Of the mutineers left on Mili only two survived; these were picked up by USS Dolphin two years later. [Ward 1967: IV, 570-8; Stackpole 1953: 413-33; Hoyt 1975: 117-50; Lay 1828]

Russian sloop PREDPRIATIE, commanded by Otto von Kotzebue on his second expedition. Apr 28: Lying at anchor at Wotje where Kotzebue spent several days with his old acquaintances. He found that the goats and pigs he had introduced years before were being grown and eaten. May 6: Cruised off Likiep for a day while the Russians charted the reef. Left for the north seas on the following day. Lengthy descriprions of native foodstuffs and Marshallese warfare. [Kotzebue 1830: I, 291-341]

Whaleship BOSTON of Salem, Capt George Joy, visited Ebon on May 25. He named it "Boston Is." [Sharp 1960: 207-8; Dumont d' Urville 1825: Il, 527; Stackpole 1953: 373]

French corvette COQUILLE, Capt Louis Duperrey, on a scientific expedition to the Pacific. May 26: Sighted Mili. Saw people-ashore, but had no contact with them. May 28:. Sighted Jaluit, but passed on to the west immediately. [Dumont d' Urville 1825: 291-2]

Whaleship MERO of Nantucket, Capt Richard Macy, discovered a group of 11 islands at 9� N, 164� ,40'E -- Ujae. "Several of these islands are inhabited by dark & savage- looking fellows, although they behaved very well, who came off and bartered coconuts." [Reynolds 1828]

1825 Russian sloop PREDPRIATIE, Lt Otto von Kotzebue, returned to Marshalls from Kamtschatka. Oct 5: Sighted Utirik, but sailed on to the west. Oct 6: Sighted an atoll thought to be "Pescadores" -- Rongerik. Oct 7: Sighted Rongelap. which they named "Rimski-Korsakoff Is." Oct 9: Sighted Bikini which was named "Esclischoltz Is." Oct 11: Sighted Eniwetok, but saw no inhabitants there. Kotzebue then sailed westward for the Marianas. [Kotzebue 1830: II, 270-8]

US naval schooner DOLPHIN, Capt John Percival, on a mission to apprehend the mutineers from the Globe. Anchored off Mili on Nov 19 and began a search of the islands while taking on water & provisions. On one islet found a skeleton, Spanish coins, canvas & barrel staves. Finally found Lay & Hussey, two surviving crew members from the Globe, and whisked them away from the midst of a hostile mob of natives. On Dec 10, Dolphin made Maloelap and some of the crew went ashore. Also touched at Aur for a short time. A good description of the islanders and their customs. [Stackpole 1953: 421-7; Paulding 1831: 107-88; Lay 1828]

1825? Unnamed ship, perhaps from New Zealand, commanded by Capt Terry, reportedly put in at Ebon. Hostilities broke out and the ship was apparently taken by the natives. The notorious chief Kaibuke took as his name the Maori word for ship, while another chief took as his own the name of the captain of this vessel. [Ward 1967: IV, 436]

1827 Russian sloop SENYAVIN, commanded by Capt Fedor Lutke, on a scientific expedition around the world. Sighted Eniwetok in Nov and saw dense vegetation on it. [Findlay 1870: 632; Kramer 1938: 7]

1828 British naval cruiser HMS RAINBOW, Capt Henry John Rous, sighted Namorik on Dec 15. [Rous 1828]

1829 British brig CYPRUS of Australia reportedly put in at one of the Marshalls in Dec to take on wood & water. The ship had been seized by escaped convicts from Norfolk Is and carried a crew of only ten men. [Clune 1962: 122-6]

Russian ship HELENA, Capt V.S. Kromchenko, on its first voyage of exploration, visited many atolls in Marshalls. [Finsch 1893: 119; Friis 1967: 198]

Russian naval transport KROTKY, Capt L.V. Hagemeister, on passage north from Sydney, visited & described two main chains in Marshalls, naming them "Prince MenshikoVIs." [Friis 1967: 198]

1831 Whaleship ALLIANCE of Newport, Capt Hiram Covell, discovered on May 7 a group of 14 islands (4� 30'N, 168� 40'E) that he named "Covell's Group"-- Ebon. Natives spoke some Spanish words. [Ward 1967: II, 242; Stackpole 1953: 374]

1832 Russian transport AMERICA, Capt V.S. Kromchenko, on his second voyage into the Pacific, visited and described several of the Marshalls in July or Aug. [Friis 1967: 198]

1833 American brig BOLIVAR LIBERATOR, Capt Underwood, sighted on Feb 9 an island at 14� 46'N, 169� 18'E. Named it "Farnharm's Is" -- Taongi. [Ward 1967: VII, 212-6; Nautical Magazine, II (1833), 678]

Bark PERU of Salem, Capt John H. Eagleston, on a beche-de-mer voyage. Lay off Ebon on Mar 6. Several canoes approached the ship, but the natives would not come aboard. They were finally persuaded to trade their coconuts when iron hoop & beads were lowered into their canoes. Brief description of islanders' physical features and canoes. [Eagleston 1837; Ward 1967: II, 501-2 ]

Whaleship ELIZABETH of Sydney, Capt Finnis, put in at Ebon on Oct 16. Two boat crews that put ashore were seized and made prisoners. A native captured by those aboard the ship admittedthat they had intended to seize the vessel. Elizabeth lay off & on for four days, but could not discover what had happened to the men. Finally left Ebon, leaving the two officers and ten seamen ashore. [Sydney Herald,, 2 Dec 1833, 2b]

1834 Schooner VICTORIA, Capt Dowsett, put in at Bikini on May 31. Named the islands "Victoria's Group." Shore parties were landed to take on water & wood and recruit natives to dive for pearl shells. Two days after arrival, a boat crew was attacked by the natives. Two men escaped to the schooner, while five others, including Capt Dowsett, were killed ashore. Schooner made sail on June 3. [Ward 1967: III, 558; VI, 167-8; McLaren 1834]

Brig WAVERLY of Oahu, Capt Cathcart, visited Bikini in Dec to search for Capt Dowsett and missing crew members of Victoria. Remained for four weeks. Captain traded beads, cloth & iron for information. When evidence of Dowsett's former presence was found, 30 hostages were killed. Left for Pohnpei and Kosrae where the ship was cut off. [Appleton 1834]

1835 Russian transport AMERICA, Capt I.I. Schantz, discovered the island of Wotho on May 30 and named it "Schantz Is." Also sighted.13 other islands in- Ralik Chain, most of them unihabited. [Findlay 1870: 728; Friis 1967: 198]

Brig GENII of Port Jackson, Capt Edward Cattlin, visited Ebon on Sept 8. Sent two boats ashore, but they reported that there were no refreshments. Took on wood & water. Left Ebon on Sept 11. [Cattlin 1836]

Whaleship AWASHONKS of Falmouth, Capt Prince Coffin, put in at Namorik for refreshments on Oct 5. 30 natives rushed aboard, armed themselves with whale-spades, and attacked the crew. Natives withdrew when their chief was killed with a musket ball. Captain, two mates, and three sailors were killed. On its return to Honolulu, the ship drew near Ailinglapalap where natives came out in canoes but were warned to keep their distance. Later passed Lae, Rongelap & Rongerik Islands. [Ward 1967: III, 623; V, 5-11; Hawes 1924: 176-83]

Trading bark PALLAS of Salem, Capt Henry Archer. Nov 6: Sighted Ebon. Nov 10: Sighted Namorik. Ran in close to the island, but no native canoes came off. Saw natives on the beach armed with clubs & spears. [Archer 1836]

USS VINCENNES, Cmdr John H. Aulick, passed Eniwetok. on Nov 13. Saw a canoe passing between islands, but it pulled into shore as the ship approached. [Browning 1836; Paullin 1971: 69]

1837 Unnamed whaleship (perhaps either CATAWBA or THULE of Nantucket), Capt Coleman, stood off Mili. Boat was sent ashore and the captain reportedly wounded a man when a number of armed natives charged the party. [Torrey 1848: 175-6]

1840 French corvette DANAI DE, Capt de Rosamel, sighted Bikar en route from Hawaii to Pohnpei in Aug. [Hambruch 1936: I, 114]

1841 US naval sloop-of-war PEACOCK, Capt William Hudson, and schooner FLYING FISH, Capt Knox -- both belonging to the US Exploring Expedition under Capt Wilkes. May 2: Sighted Mili. May 3: Sighted Arno & Majuro. Saw canoes and houses on both islands, but made no contact. May 5: Sighted Rongelap. Surveyed the southwest side of the reef. May 7: Sighted Rongerik where they hoped to find Capt Dowsett of Victoria. Schooner was sent as close to shore as possible, but no canoes would come off. Vessels coasted the atoll but did not send men ashore. Finding nothing, they sailed for Hawaii on May 9. [Wilkes 1845: V, 107-9]

US naval schooner FLYING FISH, Capt Knox,returned to Marshalls after separating from the rest of the expedition. Dec 16: Sighted Mili. Saw natives but did not communicate with them. Dec 17: Sighted Jaluit. Dec 18: Sighted Kili. Dec 19: Sighted Namorik. [Wilkes 1845: V, 271]

1843 Whaleship WILMINGTON AND LIVERPOOL PACKET of NB, Capt Gilbert J. Place, stood off Namorik on Jan 13. Canoes came out and natives sold hats, coconuts & mats to the crew. "Many of the fair sex on board traded for you know what." [Brush 1844]

Whaleship POTOMAC of Nantucket, Capt Isaac B. Hussey. Aug 22: Passed Namorik. Aug 26: Came upon a group of small islands at 11� 15'N, 169� 34'E -- perhaps Taka. Several canoes came off to trade. Aug 29: Lay off a small island. Boats were sent to shore, but found nothing of importance. Sept 2: Lay off Ujae for a day. Sent boats ashore to gather coconuts. [Macy 1845]

Whaleship GALEN of Warren, Capt Bowers, lay off Ujae on Sept 2. Sent a boat ashore to bring off coconuts. [Macy 1845]

1844 Barque ROSE of Halifax, Capt T.F. Woods, sighted Barings Island (Namorik) on Apr 10. Canoes came out to meet the ship. Natives seem friendly though they had tried to attack another ship a few years back. Natives wear a 'tappa' around their middle. Land not very fruitful but sandy. Ship went on to Ebon. [Levesque 1989:233]

French whaleship ANGELINA of Havre, Capt Edouard Hyenne, put in at Mili on Dec 12. Three canoes came out and the natives presented gifts to officers and crew. Convinced that the islanders were friendly, the captain and mate went ashore with two boat crews, but these men were never seen again and were presumed to have been massacred. After laying off for eight days while its boats coasted the island in search of the missing men, Angelina returned to Honolulu. [Ward 1967: IV, 592-3; La Croix 1957: 102-11; Marant-Boissauveur 1849; Votte 1845]

1845 British trading brig NAIAD, Capt Andrew Cheyne, put in at "Covell's Group" -- Ebon -- on Feb 23. Canoes came out to ship; natives traded and guided the ship into the lagoon. When they began stealing objects and passing up weapons from the canoes, a fight broke out in which several natives were killed and four crewmen seriously wounded. Natives fled in their canoes and ship left immediately. [Cheyne 1852: 86-90]

French naval corvette RHIN, Capt Berard, arrived at Mili on Aug 17 to search for the captain & mate of Angelina who disppeared there a year before. Boats were sent ashore, but no trace of the men were found. Ship departed on Aug 22. [ La Croix 1957: 113-9]

French naval corvette HEROINE, Adm Hamelin, put in at Mili on Nov 18 to search for lost seamen of Angelina. Frenchmen coasted the island group for several days in their boats but found no sign of the missing men. Saw canoes during this time, but made no contact with islanders. Ship left Mili on Nov 27. [Marant-Boissauveur 1849]

1846 Brig WILLIAM NEILSON, Capt Weston, from Honolulu bound for China. No further information was found on her and she was presumed lost at sea. Ship was carrying $22,000 in gold. In 1861 a story was reportedly received from the natives of Ebon concerning a boat that arrived at Ebon some years before with six men in it. They supposedly carried a box full of gold pieces. As soon as they landed, they were all killed by the natives and their boat destroyed. These might have been the crew of William Neilson. [Ward 1967: IV, 324-7; II, 255]

1847 Bark SAMOS of Salem, Capt Henry Archer, on a trading voyage, stood off Ebon on Apr 15. Traded with natives. The next morning, the ship was visited by 16 canoes. Ship left a few hours later. [Archer 1846]

Whaleship GOLCONDA II of NB, Capt Studley. May 1: Stood off Kili. Sent boats to shore the next day, but "could get nothing but a little sand." May 6: Sighted "Peterson's Group" at 7� 45'- 9c 50'N, 166� 32' 165� 50'E. This may have been Ujae. Saw canoes with three natives. [Studley 1848]

1848 French naval corvette ARIANE, Capt Dutaillis, on search for information regarding the disappearance of captain & hands of Angelina. Jan 8: Entered the lagoon at Mili. At first only women could be seen on shore, but eventually men came out to the ship. Boats were sent ashore to question natives and take the chief prisoner, but they were mobbed by islanders as they tried to pull away from shore. No information was obtained and ship made sail on Jan 16. Remarks on physical appearance of people, food, trade wants, burial spots and language. [Halligon 1888: 93-130; Annales Hydrographiques, I (1848-9 ), 139-41 ]

Whaleship ATKINS ADAMS of Fairhaven, Capt Samuel Lane, stood off Ujelang on Mar 29. Sent a boat ashore on the following day. [Lane 1850]

1850 An unnamed vessel left one Joseph Oliver Lacey ashore on Kwajalein on APO. [The Friend, XI (Mar 1854), 18; Ward 1967: III, 579]

British ship WILLIAM MELVILLE from Lancaster, Tasmania. May 13: Arrived at Kwajalein. While she was taking on provisions, natives murdered two passengers. Four more escaped by swimming back to the vessel. [Ward 1967: III, 578-9; The Friend, VIII (Sept 1850), 68]

Whaleship PLANTER of Nantucket, Capt Isaac B. Hussey, lay off Mili on Aug 15. Canoes came out and natives traded fruit & chickens. [Paddack 1893: 135]

Trading bark BELLE of Fairhaven, Capt Handy, was lying at anchor at Mili on Aug 26. Traded for coconut oil. [Jones 1861: 112]

Whaleship EMILY MORGAN of NB, Capt Prince Ewer, sighted Mili on Aug 26 and may have put in there. [Jones 1861: 110]

Whaleship OLYMPIA of NB, Capt Warren Woodward, passed Mejit on Sept 9. Natives came off with coconuts. [Woodward 1851]

1850? Large unnamed ship went aground at Bikini. Crew departed in their boats. Left many articles on the ship. [Ward 1967: IV, 327-8; The Friend, XVIII (Sept 1861), 52]

1851 Whaleship GEORGE AND MARY of New London, Capt Green, passed Rongerik on Nov 7. Saw natives on the beach. [Scovel 1852]

Whaling bark ELIZABETH AND HENRY of NB put in at Namorik in Nov or Dec. When the captain learned of a plot to take whaling ships by natives, he made plans to capture the island chief. Afraid of landing, however, he turned off and put to sea. [Warner 1876]

Whaleship LION of Providence, Capt Nichols, traded in Mili in Nov or Dec. Natives tried to take. the ship, but could not. Put in at Namorik where Lion was met by natives who sold money for tobacco. Natives planned to take the ship, but it put to sea before they could accomplish this. Visited Ebon where the crew learned of the murder of a trader put ashore on previous visit. In retaliation, Lion fired into natives that came out in their canoes and reportedly killed 70! [Warner 1876: Jones 1861: 199, 216]

Unnamed schooner put in at Namorik in Nov or Dec. Natives swam aboard at night and killed seven men, throwing two women and a child overboard to drown. They stripped & burned the vessel. This was reported by Gilbertese natives living at Namorik to the captain of the Lion. [Warner 1876]

1852 Schooner GLENCOE of SF, Capt Lamson, arrived at Ebon in Oct. The ship was burned and the crew murdered while the chiefs were absent from the island. Capt Moore of Morning Star, who visited Ebon in 1857, suggests that the Glencoe was engaged in decoying females off the island for passage and sale elsewhere. [Moore 1858: 535; Ward 1967: II, 255; IV, 327; IV, 360]

Unnamed brig touched at Ebon in Nov or Dec. It was about to anchor when the wind shifted and captain judged it unsafe to do so. Ashore the natives were planning to take vessel and murder the crew when the ship left. [Ward 1967: IV, 327]

British man-of-war HMS SERPENT, Cmdr L.U. Hammet, touched at several islands in Marshalls on passage from Hongkong to ascertain the fate of whaleship Waverly. Dec 31: Sighted Rongerik & Rogelap and landed, but inhabitants fled making gestures of contempt. Jan 1: Landed at Wotho where officers exchanged biscuits for coconuts. Jan 2: Sighted Kwajalein without landing. Came ashore at Ujae. Natives met them and showed them watering spots but appeared to pick up spears from the grass. The attack was forstalled when another boat landed. Some of the islanders reportedly spoke English. Jan 3: Sighted unknown group which they named "Serpent Group," perhaps Lae. Serpent proceeded on to Kosrae. [Hammet 1854: 58-62; Hammet 1853]

Trading bark SEA NYMPH of SF, Capt McKenzie, was cut off at Jaluit in Dec and crew killed. The only survivor of the crew, a young Filipino boy, was brought to Honolulu in 1858. Ship was reputedly taking women off islands! [Ward 1967: IV, 327, 376, 432; Young 1877; Moore 1858: 535; The Friend, XVI (Apr 1859), 26]

Whaleship WILLIAM PENN of SF, Capt Isaac B. Hussey, reported to have touched at Ebon in Dec and carried away over $1,000 which was found there. Capt Hussey was later killed by a Hawaaiian crew member, purportedly for this money. [Ward 1967:IV, 361- 2; Jones 1861: 216, 261-2]

1853 Whaleship INDIAN CHIEF of New London, Capt Gilbert W. Fish, stood off Mili on Jan 27. Natives came aboard, but no trading. Also visited Ebon and reported that there was an "abundance of money on that island." [Ward 1967: IV, 362; Fish 1855]

Unnamed whaleship, with Frederick Mallard aboard, visited several of Marshalls. Put in at Ebon and traded with natives. "Natives appeared more savage in manner and appearance than those of Kingsmill, always carrying spears on their canoes." Passed Mili and some islands of the Ralik Chain. [Mallard 1855]

1854 Whaling bark SEA SHELL of Warren, Capt William Martin, passed by Ebon on May 5, but saw no signs of anything living. [Wheldon 1856]

Whaleship JAMES ARNOLD of NB, Capt T. Sullivan. Sept 14: Hauled up near an island 9� 1'N, 170� 58'E -- probably Maloelap. Canoe came out bringing coconuts & fish. [Sullivan 1856]

1855 Whaleship MASSACHUSETTS of NB, Capt J.E. Bennett, stood off Ebon on Feb 23. Natives came alongside with a few fowl & coconuts. Ship left the next day. [Bennett 1856]

Whaleship BELLE of Fairhaven, Capt Handy, on a cruise through Gilberts and Marshalls. Dr Pierson & wife and a Hawaiian missionary were aboard. Aug 17: Anchored at Mili. Remained there a few days trading. Aug 23: Put in at Ailinglapalap. Met chief Kaibuke who insisted that missionaries remain with him. Chief's sister was sent on a ship to Ebon to interest the people of that island to make oil for Capt Handy. Sept 7: Anchored at Namorik where the chief expressed his desire for missionaries. Ship proceeded on to Kosrae. A lengthy description of his conversations with the chiefs and his observations on the islanders is given in Dr Pierson's letter. [Pierson 1858: 89-91; Ward 1967: IV, 365-6]

Bark DRAGON of Salem, Capt Dunn, on passage from Fiji to Shanghai. Sept 12: Sighted Lib or Jabwat. Saw Kwajalein the same afternoon. [Ward 1967: IV, 19; Findlay 1870: 729]

1856 Whaleship LION of Providence, Capt William H. Hardwich, put in at Ebon on Aug 23: Traded with natives. [Macy 1856]

Whaleship ALFRED GIBBS of NB, Capt Edward Nichols, lying off Ebon on Oct 30. [Nichols 1858]

Whaling bark VIRGINIA of NB, Capt Peakes, struck a reef near Mili on Aug 31. Natives came out to assist crew on getting ship off. When it was freed, ship made for Kosrae for repairs. [Ward 1967: III, 495-7]

1857 Missionary packet MORNING STAR, Capt S.G. Moore, touched at some of Marshall Islands on its 1st voyage. Aug 29: Ran close to shore of Namu. Natives on shore "danced and capered" when they saw the ship. Canoes came alongside, 'but natives could not be persuaded to come aboard. Called the island "Dove Is." After two days there, the ship made for Kosrae & Pohnpei. Nov 8: Put in at Namorik. Nov 9: Visited Ebon. 17 canoes came out to the ship. Ship made for Gilberts, returning to Ebon on Dec 5 and remaining until Dec 25. Natives expressed desire of having a missionary live with them. Sighted Lib on Dec 27 -- naming it "Anderson Is" -- and Bikini on the following day. [Moore 1858: 450-1, 529-36; Gingham 1858: 179; Ward 1967: IV, 22-3, 367-8]

Whaleship NORMAN of Nantucket, Capt Charles C. Ray, put in at Ebon about Nov. [The Friend, XV (Feb 1858), 13]

1858 Whaleship GOVERNOR TROUP of NB, Capt Anthony Milton, lying at anchor at Ebon on Jan 4. [Doane 1859: 33]

Whaleship NORTHERN LIGHT of Fairhaven, Capt E.A. Chapel, in at Ebon on Jan 4. [Doane 1859: 33]

Brig MERCURY of NB, Capt William C. Hayden, put in at Ebon on Mar 9. Ship landed 13 Gilbertese who had been found adrift in a canoe ten days earlier. Two of the Gilbertese were killed shortly afterwards by the people of Ebon. [Ward 1967: II, 243; The Friend, XVI (Feb 1859), 11]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR, Capt John W. Brown, on its 2nd visit to Micronesia. July 25: Put in at Ebon and took Dr Pierson aboard for a meeting on Pohnpei. Returned to Ebon on Oct 23-28. Nov 17: Visited Mili and explored the lagoon. Nov 29: Put in at Majuro for two days. Exchanged presents with chief. Dec 1: Visited Ebon again. On the following days touched at Namorik, sighted Lae; and visited Bikini. [Ward 1967: IV, 372-82; The Friend, XVI (Feb 1859); 13-4; Nautical Magazine, XXVIII (June 1859), 281-7]

Unnamed German trading vessel from Hamburg put in at Ebon on Oct 19. Remained for two days. Crew came ashore armed. [Pierson 1859: 149]

Whaling bark ROSCOE of NB, Capt Alfred M. Coffin, anchored at Ebon in Oct. Brought Dr Pierson & family back to Ebon from Kosrae. [Ward 1967: IV, 373]

Whaling bark TEMPEST of New London, Capt Cordon Allyn, put in at Ebon in Dec. Reportedly took native women on board. [Roberts 1857-1865: Journal of E.P. Roberts]

1859 Hawaiian schooner PFEIL, owned by Hoffschlaeger and Stapenhorst, Capt F.W. Danelsberg, arrived in Ebon on Jan 29. It remained there until Feb 19 before making for Pohnpei. [Ward 1967: II, 244]

US naval schooner FENIMORE COOPER, Cmdr Brooke, visited Taongi in April and spent, several days making a survey. Unable to enter the lagoon because of heavy surf, the ship sailed on to Marianas. [Ward 1967: VII, 218-20]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR, Capt John W. Brown, on its 3rd voyage to Micronesia. Sept 15: Ebon. Chiefs were absent at the time, having gone to northern islands. Left on Sept 23. Nov 3: Returned to Ebon after visiting Pohnpei & Kosrae. Left the next day. Nov 5: Stood off Jaluit for a day. Dec 4: Again put in at Ebon, bringing Dr Gulick and family. Left Dec 7. [The Friend, XVII (Feb 1860), 12-3]

Whaling bark GENERAL SCOTT of NB, Capt James R. Huntting, in at Ebon on Nov 23. The natives came off to trade. [Huntting 1862]

Schooner MICRONESIA (formerly Secreto) of Hawaii, Capt Foss, bound for Pohnpei, put in at Ebon on Dec 16. Left the following day. [Roberts 1857-1865: L.H. Gulick to E.P. Roberts, 7 Dec 1859; The Friend, XVII ( Feb 1860), 16]

Whaling bark SUPERIOR of NB, Capt Richard D. Wood, passed Kili on Dec 23. "Saw the natives on the beach." [Wood 1860]

Whaleship CHANDLER PRICE of NB, Capt Crayton P. Holcomb, put in at Ebon on Dec 25. [Roberts 1857-1865: C.P. Holcomb to E.P. Roberts, 8 Jan 1860]

1860 Whaleship ARAB of Fairhaven, Capt Edwin Grinnell, called at Ebon on Jan 22 for a day. [Commercial Advertiser (Honolulu), 22 Nov 1860; The Friend, XVI I (Dec 1860), 91]

Whaling bark OSCAR of Mattapoisett, Capt Thomas C. Landers, came up to Ebon on Feb 27. Several canoes came off and the captain went ashore. [Landers 1861]

Whaleship WILLIAM C. NYE of NB, Capt John M. Soule, lay off Namorik on Mar 16. "Canoes came alongside with a few coconuts." [Soule 1861]

Whaleship MOCTEZUMA of NB, Capt Joseph Tinker, put in at Ebon in Mar or Apr. Kidnapped three natives, who escaped at Pohnpei and were later returned to Ebon by Morning Star. [The Friend, XVI I (Nov 1860), 83-4]

Whaleship CORINTHIAN of NB, Capt Valentine Lewis, stood off Namu on Apr 11. "Natives came aboard, bringing nothing but a few fish." [Lewis 1862]

Whaleship MARENGO Of NB, Capt Frederick A. Weld, in at Ebon on Apr 22 for a day or two. [The Friend, XVII (Dec 1860), 91]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR, Capt C.W. Gelett, on its 4th voyage to Micronesia. July 4: Made Ebon where it lay off and on for two days. Aug 18: Returned to Ebon. Landed three natives who had been kidnaped some months before by Moctezuma. Left on Aug 22. [The Friend, XVII (Nov 1860), 83]

Whaleship ELIZA AND ELLA of Boston, Capt Lunt, put in at Ebon on Nov 22. [Roberts 1857-1865: E.T. Doane to E.P. Roberts, 23 Nov 1860]

1861 Missionary packet MORNING STAR, Capt C.W. Gelett, on its 5th cruise to Micronesia, put in at Ebon on June 5. Left for Kosrae on June 9. [The Friend, XVIII (Sept 1861), 48; Ward 1967: IV, 400-1]

Schooner LIHOLIHO of Hawaii, Capt Bush, bound for Pohnpei on a wrecking voyage, put in at Ebon in early Dec. Brought Rev Doane to Pohnpei. [Missionary Herald, LX (Apr 1863), 111-2; ABCFM 1852-1909: III, Doane to Anderson, 19 Aug 1862]

1862 Whaleship MILTON of NB, Capt Charles Halsey, at Ebon on Jan 14. Canoes came alongside the ship. [Halsey 1863]

Whaleship NAVY of NB, Capt Andrew S. Sarvent, lay off Ujelang on Jan 16. The captain found huts deserted and took on four boatloads of coconuts. [Sarvent 1864]

1862? Unnamed whaleship. Capt Enos, visited Marshalls in Apr. Sighted Ebon & Namorik. Canoes came off on both islands but the ship outdistanced them. Apr 25: Passed Kwajalein. 60 canoes came out to the ship as it lay becalmed. Natives came aboard demanding tobacco and a commotion began. A seaman reportedly shoved the chief over the side of the ship; the rest of the natives left in terror when a cask of spruce beer exploded. [Beane 1905: 176-80]

Whaleship ALABAMA of Nantucket, Capt Alfred M. Coffin, visited Ebon in July. [ABCFM 1852-1909: III, B.G. Snow to Anderson, 15 July 1862]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR, Capt C.W. Gelett, on its 6th cruise through Micronesia, in at Ebon on Sept 9. Put Rev Snow ashore to begin his work on Ebon. [The Friend, XIX (Dec 1862), 90-1]

1863 German trading schooner MARIA, owned by Hoffschlaeger and Stapenhorst, Capt J.T. Blodgett. On Jan 16, sighted Arno and put in at Majuro. Several canoes manned by armed natives came out, forcing him to go on. Anchored off Mili some days later and went ashore. Learned of a battle between Majuro and Mili in which three Mili warriors were killed. On Jan 27, visited Ebon. In attempting to leave in Feb, the ship went aground and was broken up. The cargo was saved, thanks to the influence of the missionaries, and crew members returned to Honolulu aboard the Morning Star. Adolf Capelle is said to have first come to Ebon on the Maria. [Ward 1967: IV, 335- 8; Young 1877: entry for 8 July 1876]

Unnamed whaleship, Capt Enos, returned to Marshalls. Jan 22: Lay off Ebon. The captain went ashore and met French trader and Rev Snow. Learned that a 200-Ib hog could be bought for a plug of tobacco. Gives a brief description of native's dress. Jan 23: Put in at Namorik. Met an English trader and a Hawaiian mission teacher. Bought a hog, 50 coconuts and eight bunches of bananas for 2 lb of tobacco. Sailors purchased native twine, line made of human hair & pearlshell fishhooks. [Beane 1905: 245-50]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR, Capt C.W. Gelett, put in at Ebon in May. Returned there about July 22. [The Friend, XX (Oct 1863), 76]

Whaling bark TRITON of NB, Capt Roland T. Packard, in at Ebon on Aug 24. Took off coconuts, four pigs & 60 bbls of water. Left on Aug 26. [Packard 1865]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR, Capt Samuel James, visited islands of Marshalls. On Dec 11, visited Mili where the steward was discharged at his own request. Proceeded on to Jaluit (Dec 18), Ebon (Dec 22), and Namorik (Dec 27) before making for Pohnpei. [James 1864: 432]

Trading brig KOHOLA of HawaIIIn at Mili in Dec to trade for coconut oil. [James 1864: 38]

German trading schooner FRANZ of Hamburg, Capt Catenhusenleft, was cut off at Rongerik and the crew massacred. The natives first murdered the party who had gone ashore and then took the vessel, killing the rest of the crew and burning the ship. The motive for the attack was probably the desire for plunder. Rev Snow, who heard of the incident from people on Ebon, later saw the ship's flag and medicine chest. There may have been missionary couple aboard. [Nautical Magazine, XXXIV (1865), 52-53; The Friend, XXI (Oct 1864), 77]

Schooner CLARA D. ROBBINS of Sydney was wrecked at Majuro. Adolf Capelle, who was supposedly aboard, was almost killed at the instigation of Ben Pease. [De Brum 1869-1934: Edward Milne to British Consul in Shanghai, Dec 1869]

1864 Whaling bark CICERO of NB, Capt John R. Stivers. Jan 30: Saw a small island at 9 N, 166� 2'E -- perhaps Lae. Shortly afterwards sighted another island to the westward -- probably Ujae. Natives came aboard ship. [Stivers 1865]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR, Capt Samuel James, visited islands in the Marshalls. On Feb 4, put in at Ujelang which was sometimes called "James Is" thereafter. Found the island deserted after a "volcanic convulsion had laid waste of the island." Proceeded to Ailinglapalap (Feb 18) and Namorik (Feb 22). On the following day visited Ebon where a flu epidemic had taken many lives. The people were divided into two armed camps after the killing of a native. On Feb 28, put in at Jaluit where the ship searched for Sea Nymph, cut off there in 1852. On Mar 7, visited Mili. [Nautical Magazine, XXXIII (1864), 433-5]

Schooner PFEIL of Hawaii, Capt F.W. Danelsberg, in at Ebon in May. [ABCFM 1852-1909: III, B.G. Snow to L.H. Gulick, 23 May 1864]

British bark NIGHTINGALE, Capt Andrew Brown, en route from Newcastle to Shanghai, sighted Kili on Oct 11. [Brown 1865: 228]

Whaleship ALABAMA of NB, Capt Alfred M. Coffin, in at Ebon on Oct 12. [ABCFM 1852-1909: III, B.G. Snow to Anderson, 2 Oct 1864]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR, Capt C.W. Gelett, in at Ebon on Nov 5. [The Friend , XXII (Feb 1865), 8-10]

Schooner ABBY FOREST visited the Marshalls in Dec. [Nautical Magazine, XXXIV (1865), 52]

British bark AGNES HOLT, on a passage from Australia to China, was said to have "struck off from Brown's Range (Eniwetok)." [Brown 1865: 231]

1865 Whaleship ALABAMA of NB, Capt Alfred M. Coffin, returned to Ebon in Jan after a visit to Kosrae. [ABCFM 1852-1902: III, B.G. Snow to Anderson, 16 Jan 1865]

Missionary Packet MORNING STAR, Capt Samuel James, visited islands in Marshalls on its 10th cruise to Micronesia. Visited Mili (Aug 25), Jaluit (Aug 27), Ebon (Aug 29) and Namorik (Sept 2). Returned to Marshalls touching at Namorik (Oct 16) and Ebon (Oct 17). [The Friend, XXIII (Jan 1866), 2-3; ABCFM 1852-1909: III, B.G. Snow to Anderson, 19 Oct 1865]

Schooner PFEIL of Hawaii, Capt Ziegenhirt, arrived at Ebon on Aug 17. Brought Rev & Mrs Doane there to live. (This was the second ship of that name; the first had been condemned in Guam a few years before.) [Ward 1967: IV, 521-2 ]

Unnamed trading vessel, commanded by Capt Eury, in at Ebon from Gilberts in Nov. [HMCS 1853-1947: B.G. Snow to L.H. Gulick, 17 Nov 1865]

Whaleship CHARLES W. MORGAN of NB, Capt T.C. Landers, put in at Ebon on Dec 25. Captain went ashore with his wife. Traded for hogs & chickens, leaving the next day. [Landers 1867]

1866 Schooner PFEIL of Hawaii, Capt Ziegenhirt, chartered by ABCFM, visited mission stations in Marshalls in June. Returned in Oct to stop off again before sailing back to Hawaii. [The Friend, XXIV (Aug 1867), 76-7]

1867 Trading brig COMET of Oldenburg, Capt Weeks, put in at Ebon on Jan 21. [ABCFM 1852- 1909: III, B.G. Snow to L.H. Gulick, 19 Feb 1867]

Whaleship WASHINGTON of NB, Capt Silas G. Baker, put in at Ebon on Feb 3. Departed for Kosrae on Feb 12 with Rev Snow on board. [Missioanry Herald, LXIII (Sept 1867), 291; ABCFM 1852-1909: III, B.G Snow to L. H. Gulick, 19 Feb 1867]

Whaling bark SUNBEAM of NB, Capt Dewitt C. Barrett. Feb 5: Sighted Jaluit and sailed around it. "Two canoes came off to ship, but they had no trade except some chickens." [Barrett 1868]

ALERT, Capt Abbott, in at Ebon on Feb 10. [ABCFM 1852-1909: III, B.G. Snow to L.H. Gulick, 19 Feb 1867]

Trading brig BLOSSOM of Honolulu, Capt Ben Pease, visited Mili on Feb 15 and Jaluit a short time afterwards. In June the schooner returned to the Marshalls after visiting Pohnpei & Kosrae. After a cruise to Honolulu, the Blossom again touched at the Marshalls in Aug. Visited Arno where an Italian trader was landed. Also visited Aur where Pease put ashore two traders and took on beche-de-mer. [The Friend, XXIV (Aug 1867), 72; Moore 1872: 4; US Consular Office, Shanghai 1906: Encl 8 to Dispatch 456]

American schooner CAROLINE MILLS, Capt Nichols, on a wrecking voyage, visited Taongi in Mar or Apr. Found the wreck of a ship but no sign of survivors on the island. Wreck thought to be the Hudson Bay Co vessel Canton, chartered in 1832. [Ward 1967: VII, 221-2; The Friend, XXIV (May 1867) 37]

Schooner MALOLO, owned by Ben Pease, Capt G.A. Bridges, cruising in Marshalls. Put two traders ashore at Aur in Sept. [US Consular Office, Shanghai 1906: Encl 8 to Dispatch 456]

Brig ANNE, chartered by Ben Pease, put in at Aur in Sept. Carried load of beche-de-mer to Shanghais [US Consular Office, Shanghai 1906: End 8 to Dispatch 456]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR II, Capt Hiram Bingham, visited islands in Marshalls. Put in at Ebon (Sept 2), Jaluit (Sept 6) & Namorik (Sept 14). On its return from the west it made Ebon (Nov 11) where it took on 230 bbls of coconut oil. Put in at Namorik (Nov 25), Jaluit (Nov 28), Ebon (Dec 23) & Namorik (Dec 27). [ABCFM 1852-1909: III, Gingham's Journal aboard MS, 1 July 1867; The Friend, XXV (Mar 1868), 21-2]

British vessel DUNDONALD of Sydney, CaptJ. Kewley, visited Ujelang on Oct 26. A boat crew went ashore, finding no natives but only cooked food which natives left as they fled. [Ward 1967: VII, 350-3; Nautical Magazine, 1868: 563-4]

An unnamed trading schooner put in at Aur in Nov or Dec. Natives planned to cut off the vessel and related their intentions to a trader on the island, but he informed the captain and escaped on the schooner. [US Consular Office, Shanghai 1906: End 8 to Dispatch 456]

1868 Whaling bark STEPHANIA of NB, Capt James A. Sinclair. Jan 6: Lay off Mili and got some coconuts from natives. Jan 9: Hove to at Ebon where captain went ashore. [Sinclair 1868]

Whaling bark EUGENIA of NB, Capt John Steen, stood off Ebon on Feb 6 and took off one native as a ship's hand. [Steen 1869]

Whaleship ST GEORGE of NB, Capt George H. Soule, lay off Ebon on Feb 2. Stood off Ujelang on Feb 9 while the captain and 2nd mate went ashore. [Martin 1869]

Trading schooner MALOLO, Capt L.P. Eldridge, returned.to Marshalls from Hawaii. Mar 5: Put in at Ebon. Apr 27: Jaluit. Arrested Robert Keyser for murder of another trader. May 6: Mili. Took on water & lumber. Left for Kosrae and Pohnpei two days later. [Bridges 1870; HMCS 1853-1947: B.G. Snow to L H. Gulick, 3 Mar 1868]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR II visited islands in the Marshalls on its cruise in Aug. [The Friend, XXVI (July 1869), 58-9]

British bark SYRINGA of Sydney, Capt Brown, visited Namorik in Aug but was driven aground by a gale & wrecked. The crew was later picked up by Capt Pease and brought to Pohnpei. Account relates a drift voyage of 20 Yapese to Kili, their capture & death at the hands of a Marshallese chief. [Mahlmann 1918: 32-45; Ward 1967: III, 355-6]

Brig WATER LILY, Capt Ben Pease, put in at Namorik in Aug and took the stranded crew of the Syringa off the island. Pease left off his own crew to salvage the wreck. Visited Majuro and picked up a trader who reported that another of Pease's traders had been poisoned by the natives of Aur. Visited Aur where one of the ship's boats was attacked by islanders. Six natives allegedly were killed by the crew and all canoes and houses on the island destroyed. [US Consular Office, Shanghai 1906; End 8 to Dispatch 456]

Whaling bark HELEN SNOW of NB, Capt Thomas Campbell. Dec 18: Lay off Mili. Natives came on board with coconuts and a few fowl. Dec 21: Put in at Namorik where the captain went ashore. [Campbell 1871]

Ship CHARLOTTE JANE, Capt Richards, sighted Ujelang and may have put in there. [Findlay 1870: 733]

1869 Whaleship MARTHA WRIGHTINGTON of Nantucket, Capt Elihu F. Turner, put in at Ebon on May 24. [ABCFM 1852-1909: III, Capt Miller to Capt Tengstrom, 1869]

British brig LADY ALICIA of Sydney, Capt Daly, put in at Ebon on June 20 to trade. Left on July 5. [ABCFM 1852-1909: III, Capt Miller to Capt Tengstrom, 1869]

British brig PIONEER (formerly the Water Lily), Capt Ben Pease, put in at Ebon on Aug 18. Bound for Mili. [ABCFM 1852-1909: III, Capt Miller to Capt Tengstrom, 1869]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR II, Capt A. Tengstrom, visited Ebon, Namorik, Jaluit and possibly other islands in Marshalls around Aug. [The Friend, XXVII (Apr 1870), 29-30]

British trading brig ANNE PORTER of Shanghai, Capt Davie, touched at Ebon in Dec. en route to Honolulu to drop off missionaries there after the wreck of the Morning Star. [Ward 1967: III, 613]

1870 Trading brig PIONEER, Capt Ben Pease, in at Mili on Feb 5. [Bridges 1870]

Trading schooner MALOLO, Capt E.A. Pitman, visited Marshalls on a trading voyage. Feb 20: Mili. Took off trade for Arno & Majuro and searched for beche-de-mer. Mar 6: Arno. Took on coconut oil. Mar 8: Mili. Bought fish & breadfruit. Left for Pohnpei on May 21. [Bridges 1870]

Trading ship SOFIA visited Ebon and perhaps others of the Marshalls in Apr. Brought John Kubary to Ebon where he lived until Aug 1870. [Paszkowski 1971: 45]

USS JAMESTOWN, Cmdr N.J. Truxtun, visited Marshalls to investigate grievances of US citizens. May 28: Mili. Obtained testimony of traders against Ben Pease. Women came off to the ship and "offered themselves to the men in the most open & barefaced manner." June 5: Majuro. Several canoes came off the island. June 8: Ebon. Ship fired blank cartridges at a request of a missionary as a warning to a villainous chief. The account gives interesting comments on Marshalls acculturation, population, island economic potential, & resident whites. [Truxtun 1870; Ward 1967: IV,529]

German trading brig SUSANNE, Capt Peters, visited Ebon in Aug. Brought John Kubary off the island. [Paszkowski 1971: 46]

Trading schooner ANNIE of Hawaii,Capt Babcock, chartered for missionary work, visited the islands in Marshalls about Aug. [The Friend, XXVII (Nov 1870), 97]

Unnamed French sloop came to Majuro and left there a trader with a supply of goods. [Dana 1935: 55]

1871 Trading brig ELIZABETH K. BATESON of Sydney in at Majuro from the Gilberts in Jan. Left on Feb 1. [Sydney Mail, 1 Apr 1871]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR III, Capt Matthews, put in at Mili (Aug 21), Majuro (Aug 23), Arno & Ebon (Aug 28). Left Ebon for the west on Sept 4. Returned to Ebon (Nov 7) and visited Namorik. [ABCFM 1852 - 1909: V, J.F. Whitney to owners of MS, 18 Oct 1871, and B.G. Snow to Pogue, 8 Aug 1871; The Friend, XXIX (July 1872), 53-4]

British bark CORYPHAEUS of London, Capt Roe, was wrecked on reef of Ailuk on Aug 23. Crew was treated well by natives there. Two open boats with most of the crew left the island on Sept 3. Five men remained on the island until the arrival of HMS Barrosa in Apr 1872. [Moore 1872; Shadwell 1873]

Topsail schooner MIDGE of Auckland, accompanied by two unknown ships, visited Ebon about Oct. Searched for natives for labor trade. Sailed to Northern Marshalls looking for women to sell in Fiji. [Moore 1872; Shadwell 1873]

Brig LEONORA (formerly Pioneer), Capt Bully Hayes, put in at Mili on Nov 7. Sailed a week later but returned on Nov 22. Remained for another week then departed for the Gilberts. The Leonora visited several of the Marshall Islands on its trading cruises. Bound for Arno on. Jan 5, 1872. [Lowther 1872; Pitman 1872]

Trading schooner NEVA, owned by Bully Hayes, Capt E.A. Pitman, on a trading voyage in the Marshalls. Visited Mili (Nov 13-27 & Dec 9-21), Arno (Dec 23), Majuro (Dec 27 -31), Mili (Dec 31) & Arno (Jan 9). Took on coconut oil and landed trade goods at these islands. Remained at Mili from Jan 12 to May 23 awaiting provisions from Hayes' vessel. There the name of the schooner was changed to Emily Left Mili in search of Hayes, visiting Arno (May 23), Majuro (June 6) & Mili (June 10) where it remained two months. Its provisions depleted, the ship sailed for Hawaii, touching at Arno on Aug 16. [Pitman 1872; Moore 1872]

Schooner JIMATA of Ebon, Capt Samuel S. Brown, on a trading voyage in the Marshalls. At anchor at Mili (early Dec). Visited Ebon (Dec 16), returned to Mili (Feb 22), bound for Majuro (Feb 25). [Pitman 1872]

An unnamed steamship from Auckland belonging to a Tahiti Trading Co visited Marshalls to obtain native laborers. Called at Jaluit where it picked up some Gilbertese who had drifted there in a canoe and carried them off. [Sydney Mail, 25 Nov 1871 ]

Labor vessel EUGENE visited several islands in the Marshalls for native laborers. Took on some natives at Ailinglapalap, three of whom escaped at Jaluit and swam ashore. [Sydney Mail, 25 Nov 1871]

British trading brig LADY ALICIA of Sydney, Capt Daly, visited the Marshalls to take off copra. [Moore 1872: Encl 4]

Brig SPEC of Sydney, Capt Eury, visited several of the Marshalls on a trading voyage. [Moore 1872: Encl 4]

1860-72? A boat crew of six men reportedly landed at Arno and were killed by the natives. [Missionary Herald, LIX (Jan 1873), 31-2]

1872 Schooner SAMOA, Capt Schmidt, put in at Ebon on Jan 20. Left on Mar 12; [ABCFM 1852- 1909: VI, B.G. Snow to Clark, 20 Jan 1872, and J.F. Whitney to Clark, 12 Mar 1872]

Brig CARL of Melbourne, Capt Joseph Armstrong visited Marshalls on blackbirding voyage in Jan. Took ten or 15 natives from Mili. [ABCFM 1852-1909: V, E.T. Doane, 13 Jan 1872; Great Britain 1873: 28-35]

Ketch LILIAN, Capt Hammond, visited Ebon in Jan. [The Friend, XXIX (Dec 1872), 98]

Unnamed labor vessel visited Mili about Mar and took off eight natives. [Moore 1872]

Trading brig LEONORA, Capt Bully Hayes, on a trading voyage through the Marshalls. Visited Arno (late Mar), Mili (Apr 11-16 & Apr 29 - May 4) & Majuro. Returned to Mili (May 9), eluding the British warship Barrosa by one day. Visited Ujelang (May 16) and other islands in the north to put ashore four traders. Returned to Ujelang (June 9), taking on several tons of copra. Hayes allegedly mistreated the natives, hunting them down and putting some in irons. Left for Pingelap on June 20. [Moore 1872; Pitman 1872; Lowther 1872]

British man-of-war HMS BAR ROSA, Capt Lewis J. Moore, visited Marshall Islands to investigate labor trade practices. Visited Ailuk (Apr 7) where they picked up five crew members from the shipwrecked Coryphaeus. Passed close to Maloelap (Apr 10) and put ashore at Arno (Apr 15). Stood off Jaluit (Apr 17), finally landing at the island (Apr 26). Interviewed traders and acquired information on Hayes. Visited Majuro (May 3) & Mili (May 6). Learned that two labor vessels had carried off 18 natives some months before. Visited Ebon (May 10). Report describes activities of labor vessels in the Marshalls. [Moore 1872]

English brig ELIZABETH K. BATESON of Sydney, Capt Keats, put in at Ebon on May 1 and Arno on May 27. [Pitman 1872; The Friend, XXIX (Dec 1872), 98]

German trading schooner SAVAII, owned by Godeffroy Co, Capt Edward Milne, put in at Ebon (June 1), Mili (July 13) and other islands to pick up copra and oil. Left Mili on July 19 for islands in northern part of Marshalls. [Pitman 1872; The Friend, XXIX (Dec 1872), 98]

North German brig ISERBROOK, owned by Godeffroy Co, Capt Levisohn, visited Ebon on June 9. [The Friend, XXIX (Dec 1872), 98]

American schooner EMILY, Capt Holliman, lying off Arno on Aug 17. [Meade 1872]

USS NARRAGANSETT, Cmdr Richard W. Meade, on a cruise through the Marshalls to collect evidence on Bully Hayes. Visited Arno (Aug 17) where it surveyed the reef and entered the lagoon, but made no contact with natives. Anchored at Mili (Aug 19). Took on wood & provisions. Put in at Ebon (Aug 26). Natives came out to trade, requesting money in exchange for their produce. Some good descriptive comments on life in Ebon. [Meade 1872; Meade 1873]

British trading brig LADY ALICIA of Sydney, Capt Daly, put in at Ebon on Aug 23. [The Friend, XXIX (Dec 1872), 98]

Whaleship EMMA C. JONES of NB, Capt Ezra Gifford, put in at Ebon on Sept 23. [The Friend, XXIX (Dec 1872), 98]

HMS BLANCHE, Capt Cortland Simpson, visited Marshalls to investigate labor trade practices. Sept 23: Put in at Majuro and sent boats ashore. Found that natives demand payments for drinking coconuts. Reports variety of foodstuffs for sale on the island. Put in at Jaluit (Sept 28) & Ebon (Oct 21). Several comments on native notions of trade & money. [Simpson 1873: 203: Brazier 1872]

Schooner IDA, Capt Eury, on a trading cruise in the Marshalls in early Oct. [Fiji Times, 25 Dec 1872]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR III, Capt William B. Hallett, put in at Ebon (Oct 16) & Mili (Oct 24). Probably also touched at other islands in Marshalls. [Alexander1873]

Schooner RESTLESS of Sydney, Capt Bowman, went to Ailuk to salvage wreck of Coryphaeus, but found very little of value. Proceeded to Kosrae afterwards. [Simpson 1873: 198]

1873 Trading schooner SAVAII, formerly owned by Godeffroy Coi -and now trading for Capelle Co, Capt Edward Milne, put in at Ebon on Jan 7. Took Rev Snow to other islands in the southern Marshalls. Touched at Mili, Arno, Majuro & Jaluit. [ABCFM 1852-1909: V, B. G. Snow to Clark, 7 Jan 1873]

German bark PETER GODEIFFROY of Hamburg, Capt Wendt, put in at Ebon and Jaluit (Mar 19) to take on copra. Left Jaluit about Apr 25. [Missionary Herald, LXX (Feb 1874), 47]

British naval schooner HMS ALACRITY, Cmdr William Moore, spent seven weeks in Gilbert & Marshalls checking on labor vessels. July 5: Visited Mili. Returned nine natives taken by labor vessel Carl and made sail for Fiji the same day. [Moore 1873; Fiji Times, 13 Aug 1873]

British trading brig LADY ALICIA of Sydney, Capt Daly, put in at Ebon on Sept 12. [HMCS 1853-1947: B.G. Snow to Pogue, 12 Sept 1873; ABCFM 1852-1909: V, J.F. Whitney to Clark, 12 Sept 1873]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR III, Capt William B. Hallett, visited islands in MarshaIIs. Put in at Mili (Oct 12-15), Ebon (Oct 20-31), while the mission meeting was held, Namorik (Nov 1-4), Jaluit (Nov 8-11), Mili (Nov 15-18), Arno (Nov 20-251, Majuro (Nov 25-Dec 1), & Ebon (Dec 7-11). Returned to the Marshalls after its cruise westward, touching at Jaluit (Mar 10-19, 1874) & Ebon (Mar 20-301. [The Friend, XXXI (June 1874), 45]

Unnamed schooner from Auckland, Capt C.F. Wood, on a cruise to the Marshalls. Visited Namorik (Oct 20). Took on fowl & coconuts and met a German trader ashore. Stood off Jaluit for a day. A single canoe came out and natives traded hurriedly & suspiciously. Put in at Mili (Oct 25). Wood went ashore and met the island chief who showed him wounds he had received in a battle against Majuro some years before. At another part of the atoll Wood bought provisions & handicraft. [Wood 1875: 193-207]

Schooner JIMATA, Capt Samuel S. Brown, on a trading voyage, in at Ebon on Nov 20. Capt Brown died while schooner was at anchor there. [The Friend, XXXI (June 1874), 45]

1874 Trading schooner SAVAII of Capelle Co, Capt Becker, visited Namorik on Jan 15, then Jaluit, and possibly other Marshall islands. [Wawn1874: 142]

Ketch E.A. WILLIAMS,owned by Henderson- MacFarlane, was delivered to Mili on Jan 17. Purchased by Hayes for sale to an island chief. [Clune 1970: 127-8; Day 1966: 114]

Trading schooner MATAUTU, owned by Capelle Co, Capt Niebuhr, lying at anchor at Jaluit in Jan. The schooner, based in Jaluit, sailed among the Marshalls visiting Capelle's trading stations. [Wawn 1874: 147]

Brig LEONORA, Capt Bully Hayes, lying at anchor at Namorik in Jan. [Wawn 1874: 142]

Brig ELIZABETH K. BATESON of Sydney, Capt Lessing, anchored at Jaluit on Feb 24 and remained for a few days. [Wawn 1874: 151]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR III, Capt C.W. Gelett, visited Marshalls. Put in at Mili (Aug 23-25), Arno (Aug 26-27), Majuro (Aug 30-Sept 2), & Jaluit (Sept 4-9). At this last island "Money is in full circulation, the value of which the natives well understand." Also touched at Ebon (Sept 10-13) before sailing westward. On its return passage it visited Ebon (Nov 20), Namorik (Nov 22-24), Jaluit (Nov 27-Dec 9), Ebon (Dec 10) & Mili (Dec 15). [The Friend, XXXII (Mar 1875), 22]

British warship HMS ROSARIO, Capt A.E. Dupuis, on a cruise to the Marshalls. Visited Mili (Aug 26) and obtained some supplies there. Next visited Arno, Ebon, Wotje & Ujelang (Sept 18). Account of the cruise gives estimated population of islands visited and some information on provisions that may be obtained on each. [Sydney Mail, 27 Mar 1875]

North German brig ALFRED, owned by Godeffroy Co, Capt Ganter, put in at Jaluit on Sept 19. Ship was wrecked on reef in trying to leave. All Kubary's collected specimens were lost with the ship. [Wawn 1874:151-5; Young 1877]

1875 Whaling bark ARCTIC of Honolulu, Capt Whitney, lying off Ebon on Jan 26. [ABCFM 1852 -1909: VI, B.G. Snow to Pogue, 28 Dec 1874]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR III, Capt A.D. Colcord, on its annual cruise, visited Marshall Islands. Put in at Ebon (Aug 17). Visited Mili (Aug 20) where the ship took on provisions. The chief and his family came aboard. Put in at Majuro (Aug 25), Jaluit (Aug 30) & Ebon (Sept 8) before making sail for Kosrae & Pohnpei. Returned to Jaluit (Nov 22) where it took on some of the crews of three ships recently wrecked by the typhoon. Touched at Namorik (Dec 1), Ebon (Dec 2) & Majuro (Dec 7). War was breaking out in Majuro just as the ship left the island. The journal contains vivid descriptions of the islands visited. [Colcord 1875]

Russian barkentine JULIE REITZ, owned by Capelle Co, Capt Harslager, anchored at Jaluit in Nov. In a typhoon the ship was driven ashore and lost with all its cargo. Two other schooners belonging to Capelle Co were also lost. [Young 1877; Colcord 1875]

Schooner AGNES DONALD of Auckland, owned by Thomas Farrell, put in at Ebon on Dec 16. [ABCFM 1852-1909: V, J.F. Whitney to B.G. Snow, 16 Dec 1875]

c1875 Ketch MARY ANN of Auckland, Capt Westfallen, put in at Jaluit and perhaps other islands in the Marshalls on a trading voyage. Brought "Black Tom Tilden" to Jaluit from Samoa. Louis Becke was mate aboard the ship. [Dana 1935: 29]

1876 Schooner LEVUKA, Capt Nils Michelsen, visited Jaluit, Ebon and Namorik in March. After visiting Pohnpei and Kosrae, returned to stop off at Mili, Arno, Majuro, Jaluit (April 28). Met Capelle "a gentleman who seemed to have a good calling". Arrived at Ebon on May 4, leaving on May 19. Visited Kili and Jaluit (May 22). [ABCFM 1852-1909: J.F. Whitney to Clark, 9 May 1876; Segebrecht: 308-9]

Schooner COERAN of Hernsheim Co, Capt Edward Hernsheim, put in at Ebon about May. Later visited Majuro where Capt Hernsheim made peace between two warring chiefs. [Missionary Herald, LXXII (Dec 1876), 393]

Schooner FARANDO at Jaluit in late May. [Segebrecht: 309]

English brig VISION of Auckland, owned by Thomas Farrell, Capt George Loverock, made trading voyage to Marshalls to establish stations for Farrell. June 7: Visited Mili and bought two tons of copra from white traders. June 17: Touched at Majuro where they put ashore a trader and purchased the island of Anil for $100. June 27: Put in at Arno. Bought nine tons of coconut oil and put a trader ashore. July 7: Visited Jaluit and found "all the natives wearing western clothes." July 14: Touched at Kili, uninhabited since the typhoon the year before and lately purchased by Capelle for $300. July 15: Visited Namorik and put ashore a trader. Two traders were already living here, "Many of the natives can read & write." July 25: Put in at Ebon where they purchased land for trading station. James Young was put ashore as a resident trader. Vision touched at Majuro & Mili once more before returning to Auckland. [Young 1877]

Schooner MATAUTU, Capt Stockflett, put in at Ebon (June 25 & Aug 181, Jaluit and perhaps other islands, and Ebon (Dec 2). [Young 1877; Segebrecht: 309]

British warship HMS SAPPHO, Cmdr Digby, on a cruise to the Marshalls to investigate charges against Hernsheim of murdering Yapese natives. Visited Mili & Arno. (June 29), Majuro, Jaluit, Ebon & Namorik, before heading for the Solomon Islands. [Young 1877]

Bark HELENE, Capt Bahlmann, put in at Jaluit on May 23; was still lying at anchor on July 7. [Segebrecht 1956: 309; Young 1877]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR III, Capt A.D. Colcord, visited Marshalls in Aug. Aug 18: Ebon. Found natives in an uprising against Chief Kabua for entertaining a party of chiefs there at the people's expense "till the fat of Ebon had become exhausted." People forced him to flee to Jaluit and cut down his breadfruit trees. Morning Star left Ebon on Aug 22. Aug 24: Jaluit. "The people are decently clothed." Learned that a Marshallese mission teacher at Ailinglapalap had taken part in a killing. Left Aug 30. Also touched at Mili (Sept 1), Arno (Sept 5), Majuro (Sept 6), Namorik (Sept 13) & Ebon (Sept 15). On its return from the west, Morning Star visited Jaluit (Dec 3) and other islands in the Marshalls. [ABCFM 1852-1909: V, "Report of the Trip of MS to Micronesia, 1876-77"]

Unnamed American whaling bark stood off Ebon on Oct 8 for a day. [Young 1877]

Whaling brig COMET of Honolulu stood off Ebon on Oct 9 for a day. Captain came ashore. Natives purchased $100 worth of goods, but were unable to buy muskets for an impending battle. Bound for Jaluit. [Young 1877]

German schooner TUTUILA of Capelle Co, Capt Witt, on a trading voyage in the Marshalls. Visited Namorik & Jaluit (Dec 1), Ebon (Dec 12) & other islands. Returned to Namorik (Jan 15), Ebon (Jan 20), Jaluit & Ebon (Feb 6). After visiting Pohnpei, returned to Majuro (Apr 11) & Mili (Apr 13). [Young 1877]

German trading brig SUSANNE, owned by Capelle Co, Capt Loser, lay off Jaluit from Dec 9 through early Feb 1877. Put in at Ebon on Feb 17, leaving the same day for Pohnpei, Guam & Palau. Returned in late May. [Young 1877; Seqebrecht:309]

Schooner AGNES DONALD of Auckland, Capt Austin, on a trading cruise in the Marshalls to visit Thomas Farrell's station. Visited Ebon (Dec 15), Majura (Dec 24), Mili (Dec 30), Arno (Jan 3), Majuro (Jan 11), Arno (Jan 20), Mili (Jan 22), Namorik (Jan 26), Ebon ( Jan 27): Returned to Namorik & Jaluit (early Feb) & Ebon (Mar 17). Sailed for Pohnpei & Yap. [Young 1877; Westwood 1905: 76]

Brig VISION of Auckland, Capt Morton, on a trading voyage in the Marshalls. Visited Majuro (Dec 16), Arno & other islands, Ebon (Mar 17), Aur, Namorik & Majuro. [Young 1877; Dana 1935: 23-4]

Schooner FORTUNE of Auckland, Capt Murray, on a trading voyage in Marshalls. Visited Majuro (Dec 26), Namorik (Jan 15, 1877) & Ebon (Jan 16). This vessel was sold to two chiefs for $1000 and 75 tuns of copra. Visited Namorik (Feb 5), Ebon (Mar 17), Aur, Majuro , Mili & Ebon (Apr 15). Fortune remained at Ebon for several months until Nov 1877. When the Marshallese chief defaulted in payment of this ship, the Fortune was repossessed by creditors of Farrell's Co, [Young 1877; Westwood 1905: 71, 76-83]

1877 Schooner ELISE, Capt Hernsheim, arriving from China via Solomon Is, in at Ebon on Feb 2. [Young 1877]

Schooner MATAUTU, owned by Capelle Co, Capt Stockflett, on a trading voyage. Visited Namorik & Ebon (Feb 5 - Mar 28), Namorik & Jaluit (Apr 10), Ebon (Apr 24), and Jaluit (June 25). Returned to Ebon (Sept 23), Namorik and Jaluit (Oct 1). [Young 1877; Le Hunte 1883]

Schooner FRANZISKA of Hernsheim Co, Capt Miller, from Shanghai. Visited Jaluit & Ebon (Feb 17 & Apr 13). [Young 1877]

Schooner LOTUS of SF, Capt Bully Hayes, put in at Jaluit on Mar 5 and continued through some other islands of Marshalls. Left Jaluit Mar 27, bound for Namorik & Kosrae. Two days later, Hayes was killed by the cook and the schooner returned to Jaluit to report his death. [Young 1877; Clune 1970: 145-6]

Bark SAN FRANCISCO in at Jaluit in Mar. Left Jaluit for Samoa on .Mar 27. [Young 1877]

American schooner MAGGIE JOHNSTON, Capt Bliven, called at Jaluit on Apr 5. Took off copra and left for Samoa. [Young 1877]

Ketch E.A. WILLIAMS, owned by Capelle Co, Capt Becker, on a voyage among the IMarshalis.. Visited Ebon (June 14), Jaluit (July 28), Wotje, Lae, Ailinglapalap, Ebon (Oct 25), Jaluit (Dec 22), Arno and Majuro (Jan 28, 1878). [Young 1877; ABCFM 1852-1909: V, J.F. Whitney to Clark, 25 Oct 1877]

Schooner AGNES DONALD of Auckland, Capt J. Murray, returned to the Marshalls from Western Carolines. Visited Farrell's trading stations to wind up his business. Put in at Majuro (July 10), Jaluit (July 22), Ebon (Aug 4), Mili & Ebon (Nov 9), Namorik (Nov 21), Majuro (Nov 30) and Arno. Left for New Zealand Dec 28 with 15 tons copra. [Young 1877]

German vessel CAESAR GODEFFROY, Capt Decker, arrived at Jaluit on Aug 2 to pick up copra for shipment to Samoa. [Young 1877; Samoa Times, 22 Dec 1877]

German trading brig SUSANNE, Capt Loser, returned to Jaluit in May. Was again lying at anchor at Jaluit on Aug 2. Returned to Jaluit in late Oct. [Young 1877; ABCFM 1852-1909: V, J.F. Whitney to Clark, 27 Oct 1877]

Unnamed schooner out of Singapore lying at anchor at Ebon on Aug 11. [ABCFM 1852-1909: V, J. F. Whitney to Clark, 11 Aug 1877]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR III, Capt A.D. Colcord, visited several of Marshalls in Aug. [Missionary Herald, LXXIV (May 1878), 154-5]

Schooner MONTIARA of Singapore, Capt Ravekilde, on a beche-de-mer cruise from China via Yap & Pohnpei. Visited Ebon (Sept 11), Jaluit (Sept 15), Majuro (late Sept), Jaluit (late Oct), Ebon (Nov 2). Left for Pohnpei on Nov 10. [Young 1877]

Brig VISION of Auckland, Capt Hawkins, visited Majuro on a cruise to the Marshalls to wind up affairs of Thomas Farrell's trading Co. Visited Majuro (Sept 28) & other islands. [Young 1877; New Zealand Herald, 14 Jan 1878]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR III, Capt A.D. Colcord, put in at Ebon on Oct 16. Brought E.M. Pease & wife, the new missionaries for the island. Left Oct 31. [Young 1877]

Schooner MAGGIE JOHNSTON of SF, Capt Bliven, lying at anchor at Jaluit on Nov 7. [Young 1877]

Schooner LOTUS, formerly owned by Bully Hayes, Capt Miller, on a trading voyage in Marshalls. Visited Jaluit (Dec 8), Majuro (Dec 12), Arno (Dec 14), Mili (Dec 15), Jaluit (Dec 16), Majuro (Dec 28). From Jaluit, its home port, the vessel put in at Ebon (Jan 17 & 23) & Namorik (Jan 29). Early in Feb left for Yap to buy copra for Capelle Co. [Young 1877]

Cutter SPRAY of TAHITI, Capt Barston, in the Marshalls. Visited Jaluit and hauled up for repairs (Dec 17). Left for Ratak Group, visiting Mili (Jan 27), Majuro and Jaluit (Feb 3). [Young 1877]

Whaling bark NORMAN of NB, Capt Thomas G. Campbell, put in at Jaluit on Dec 29. Left Jan for Pohnpei. [Young 1877]

1878 Schooner MAGGIE JOHNSTON of SF, Capt Bliven, put in at Jaluit on Jan 6. [Young 1877]

Schooner PACIFIC, Capt Peterson, arrived from Hongkong & Yap. Visited Jaluit (Jan 15), islands in the Ratak Group (Jan 19) & Jaluit again (Jan 27). Touched at Namorik & Ebon at the end of Jan. [Young 1877]

Schooner FLINT of Auckland, Capt Moller, lying at anchor at Ebon on Mar 13. [ABCFM 1852-1909: V, J.F. Whitney to Clark, 13 Mar 1878]

Brig STORMBIRD, of Honolulu, Capt George Jackson, on a labor cruise, put in at Jaluit for supplies & water on Mar 14. Ship left on Mar 26 after replenishing. Capt Jackson recommended that Jaluit be made a regular provisioning stop on future cruises. [Commercial Advertiser (Honolulu), 1 June 1878]

Trading, schooner JOHN BRIGHT of SF, Capt Merithers(?), in at Ebon on Apr 12 after visiting at Jaluit. [ABCFM 1852-1909: V, Pease to Clark, 12 Apr 1878]

Bark SOPHIA, Capt Buttschau, in at Jaluit in May or June. [Samoa Times, 26 Oct 1878]

Schooner BELLE BRANDON, owned by Henderson & MacFarlane, Capt Harris, on a trading voyage. Visited Arno ire June. [Dana 1935: F,1-4]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR III, Capt Isaiah Bray, cruised through Marshalls. Visited Arno (Aug 5-8), Majuro (Aug 9-14), Mili (Aug 15-19), Jaluit (Aug 21-23), Namorik (Aug 24), & Ebon (Aug 26 - Sept 10). While a mission meeting was being held at Ebon, the vessel touched at Namorik (Sept 11), Aur (Sept 17-19), Maloelap (Sept 19), & Majuro (Sept 21-25). Made an unsuccessful effort to establish peace between warring factions and landed a teacher at Majuro. Visited Arno (Sept 28), Mili (Sept 29 - Aug 2), Jaluit (Oct 3-7), & Ebon (Oct 8). Upon return from its westward cruise, Morning Star again touched at Ebon (Jan 17, 1879) & Jaluit (Jan 20-24). [ABCFM 1852-1909: IV, "Journal of MS for 1878-79"]

Brig VISION of Auckland, Capt G.H. Harris, on a trading voyage. Visited Majuro (Sept 5) & other islands in the Marshalls after returning from Carolines. Sailed for Auckland in Sept. [New Zealand Herald, 15 Oct 1878]

German warship SMS ARIADNE, Capt B. von Werner, on a mission to establish German rights on Jaluit. Nov 26: Put in at Jaluit. A treaty was signed ceding Jaluit to Germany as a coating station. Natives performed war dances for the Germans, who in turn staged military maneuvers that terrified the people. Dec 2: Called at Ebon. Gathered the people to announce the signing of the treaty. Fine detailed description of Jaluit's "town" islanders' dress and physical characteristics, personal hygiene, and native dances. Some observations on polygamy and chiefly succession. [Werner 1889: 360-78; Kramer 1938: 9-12]

Schooner GAEL of Auckland made a trading voyage in Marshalls in Nov & Dec after visiting Rotuma, Gilberts & Ellice Islands. Left Arno on Dec 5 for return voyage. [New Zealand Herald, 29 Jan 1879]

Schooner TONGATABU, Capt Bahlman, at Jaluit in Nov or Dec. [Samoa Times, 2 Nov 1878]

Schooner OLESAGA, Capt Schleuter, at Jaluit in late 1878. [Samoa Times, 23 Nov 1878]

1879 Schooner UPOLU, Capt Olason, at Jaluit in Jan 1879. [Samoa Times, 22 Feb 1879]

Schooner BELLE BRANDON of Auckland, Capt Robinson, put in at Arno on Jan 2 and visited other islands in Marshalls through the next couple of months. Again visited the Marshalls from Aug to Oct before returning to New Zealand. [New Zealand Herald, 21 May 1879]

Schooner C.M. WARD of New London in at Ebon in Jan. [ABCFM 1852-1909: V, J.F. Whitney to Clark, 8 Feb 1879]

Schooner MAGGIE JOHNSTON of SF, Capt Bliven, in at Jaluit on Mar 5. [HMCS 1853-1947: B.G. Snow to Clark, 24 Apr 1879]

Schooner ANGOSTURA, Capt Boisan, at Jaluit in July 1879. [Samoa Times, 28 July 1879]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR III, Capt Isaiah Bray, visited Marshalls. Put in at Ebon (Aug 7-16), Jaluit (Aug 16-21), & Maloelap (Aug 26-27). Natives were eager to procure cloth, soap, washboards, etc. Visited Arno (Aug 28) & Majuro (Aug 30). Fighting took place on both of these islands during the past year. Touched at Mili (Sept 1-3), Jaluit (Sept 4-8), Namorik (Sept 9-10), & Ebon (Sept 12-29). [ABCFM 1852-1909: IV, "Report of the 9th Voyage of MS, 1879-80"]

Schooner JOHN BRIGHT, Capt R.B. Bentley, in at Jaluit in Dec. Took off a load of native Gilbertese for Hawaii plantations. [Bennett 1976: 26]

Schooner MANA of Honolulu, Capt Franks, on a labor cruise in the Gilberts, put in at Jaluit in distress in Dec. The vessel was wrecked before it could return to Hawaii. [Bennett 1976: 26]

1880 Schooner TORI, Capt Kumminga, put in at Jaluit on Jan 20. [Young 1881]

Bark SOPHIA arrived at Jaluit on Mar 30. Left shortly afterwards for Samoa. [Young 1881]

Bark HAWAII of Honolulu, Capt Benjamin Whitney, on a labor cruise, in at Jaluit in Mar. Departed with 282 "immigrants" from the south seas to work in Hawaii. [The Friend, XXXVII (May 1880), 33]

Trading schooner JOHN BRIGHT of SF, Capt R.B. Bentley, on a labor cruise to Gilberts, in at Jaluit in Mar. Departed with 106 native laborers in company with Hawaii. [The Friend, XXXVII (May 1880), 33]

Schooner ALASKA, Capt Westphalen, on a labor cruise, lying at anchor at Jaluit on Apr 21. Left for Pingelap on Apr 25. [Young 1881]

Brig NICOLAUS of Honolulu, Capt Jepsen, on a labor cruise to the Gilberts, lying at anchor at Jaluit on Apr 21. Vessel left, but in June returned to Jaluit disabled. [Young 1881; Bennett 1976: 26]

Bark FERDINAND of Falmouth, Capt Westgaard, lying at anchor at Jaluit on Apr 21. Left on May 4. [Young 1881]

Schooner JALUIT, Capt Witt, in at Jaluit on Apr 21. The schooner crossed back & forth in the Marshalls picking up copra. Visited Ailinglapalap & Ebon (Apr 26). [Young 1881]

Barkentine MATHILDE, Capt Nissen, put in at Jaluit on Apr 21 to collect copra. Left for Apia on May 8, but returned to Jaluit after springing a leak. Set out for Sydney on June 5. [Young 1881]

Schooner MONTIARA, Capt Schneiders, lying at anchor at Jaluit on Apr 21. Visited Majuro (Apr 22) & Ebon (May 7). [Young 1881]

Schooner OLESAGA, Capt Schleuter, on a trading voyage in the Marshalls, put in at Jaluit on Apr 21. Left for Eniwetok & Ujelang on May 10, returning to Jaluit on June 1. [Young 1881]

German schooner FRANZISKA, Capt Rohlf, in at Jaluit in April. [Young 1881]

Schooner VAVAU, Capt Breckwoldt, on a labor cruise from the Gilberts, arrived at Jaluit on May 4. Departed on May 12 for Kosrae. [Young 1881]

Schooner FORTUNE, Capt Wallace, with Gilbertese laborers for Hawaii, arrived at Jaluit on May 15. [Young 1881]

Schooner VENUS of Aberdeen, Capt Cummings, on a trading voyage to open up trading stations in the Pacific for the De Wolff Co of Liverpool. Arrived at Jaluit on June 9. [Young 1881]

Schooner BELLE BRANDON of Auckland, Capt Harris, on a trading cruise. Visited Namorik, Ebon & Majuro in Aug after having touched at Pohnpei & Mortlocks. [Dana 1935: 100-1]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR III, Capt Isaiah Bray, visited Marshalls in Nov. Touched at Ebon (Nov 3-9), Maloelap (Nov 15-18), Majuro (Nov 19) & Arno (Nov 21). Returned to Ebon (Dec 2) and touched at Namorik (Dec 3) before sailing west. (ABCFM 1852-1909: IX, "Report of the 10th Voyage of MS, 1880-81"]

Trading schooner FALCON of Auckland, owned by Henderson & MacFarlane, Capt Hayward, put in at Majuro in Nov. Called on several other islands before visiting Gilberts. [Dana 1935: 101]

Schooner TONGATABU, Capt Huffnagel, in at Jaluit and other islands in late 1880. [Samoa Times, 2 Apr 1881]

Brig POMARE of Honolulu, Capt A.N. Tripp, on a labor cruise. Put in at Jaluit for one week in Jan or Feb before sailing for Hawaii. Gives good description of the port town of Jaluit at that time. [Farrell 1928: 204-6]

1881 German schooner FRANZISKA, Capt Rohlf, visited Ebon (Apr 20) and Jaluit. Proceeded on to. Pohnpei. [Young 1881]

Schooner RYNO of Auckland, Capt Fernandez, on a trading voyage in the Marshalls in Apr. Returned to Auckland on May 30. [New Zealand Herald, 30 May 1881]

Schooner VAVAU, Capt Breckwolst, left Jaluit on Apr 2. [Samoa Times, 7 May 1881]

British man-of-war HMS EMERALD, Capt William H. Maxwell, visited Marshalls. Touched at Mili (June 8), Arno (June 9), Majuro (June 13), & Jaluit (June 16). At Arno. & Majuro, Maxwell found the islands in a state of war between rival chiefs. He spoke to contending parties in order to ease hostilities. At Jaluit the Emerald took on 100 tons of coal, leaving on June 22 for Kosrae & Pohnpei. Some interesting observations on social conditions in the report on this voyage. [Maxwell 1881]

German sloop-of-war SMS HABICHT, Capt Kuhn, on a voyage through Micronesia with German Consul General, Capt Zembach, aboard. Put in at Mili (June 9), Majuro (June 14) & Jaluit (June 19). Returned to Solomon Islands. [Maxwell 1881]

Steamer PACIFIC, owned by Hernsheim Co, arrived at Jaluit on June 17. [Maxwel 1881]

Unnamed schooner from Pohnpei touched at Jaluit on Aug 8. Bound for Majuro and then Auckland. [HMCS 1853-1947: Rand to Means, 8 Nov 1881]

German bark TARQUIN (?). Capt L.A. Kessel, arrived at Jaluit in mid-June with a supply of coal. The vessel was again lying at anchor at Jaluit on Aug 23. [Maxwell 1881; Capelle 1883-1909: "Agreement for the Purchase of Land in Jaluit," 23 Aug 1881]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR I II, Isaiah Bray, visited Jaluit on Sept 13. Made sail the next day. Ship was to have visited Marshalls on return voyage, but had to proceed directly to Honolulu after springing a leak. [ABCFM 1852-1909: IX, "Report of the 11th Voyage of MS, 1881 82"]

ROCHELLE, Capt Witt, visited Marshalls. [Hager 1889: 32]

1882 Unnamed vessel put in at Jaluit on June 1. Brought R.S. Swanston, who took up residence there for a year. [Swanston 1885: VI]

Schooner BELLE BRANDON OF Auckland, Capt Lehrne, put in at Jaluit on June 15. [Swanston 1885: VI]

German bark CASSI LDA left Jaluit on June 19 with 40 tons of copra aboard. Bound for Pohnpei. [Swanston 1885: VI]

FRAIYA, owned by Hernsheim Co, put in at Jaluit on June 20. [Swanston 1885: VI]

Schooner OLESAGA on a trading voyage to the Marshal Is. Jaluit was home port for its copra & supplies cruises. Visited Majuro (July 11), Ebon (Aug 13), & several other islands. [Swanston 1885: VI]

Labor schooner JULIA of Honolulu, Capt Brown, touched at Jaluit on July 18. Returned to Jaluit from the Gilberts on Aug 5 and visitedJaluit again on Dec 4. [Swanston 1885:V]

Schooner MONTIARA arrived in Jaluit on July 18. Sailed for Ebon on July 23, returning to Jaluit on Aug 13. Thereafter it made regular cruises to other islands in the vicinity. Montiara was the service vessel for the Marshalls; its home port was Jaluit. [Swanston 1885: VI]

German bark LOUISA in at Jaluit on July 27. [Swanston 1885: VI]

Brig BELLONA, owned by Capelle Co, arrived at Jaluit on Aug 3. Sailed for Europe with full load of copra on Aug 23. [Swanston 1885: VI]

Bark SEAVER in at Jaluit on Aug 5. Sailed on Aug 14. [Swanston 1885: VI]

Labor schooner ALASKA arrived at Jaluit from the Gilberts on Sept 12. Returned to Jaluit four times between Sept and Jan 1883. [Swanston 1885: VI]

German bark NAVIGATOR of Hamburg arrived at Jaluit on Sept 21, bringing supplies for Hernsheim Co. Left on Oct 30 with full load of copra. [Swanston 1885: VI]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR III, Capt Isaiah Bray, visited Marshalls. Touched at Namorik (Sept 21), Ebon (Sept 24) & Jaluit (Sept 28). At Jaluit, Capt Bray refused to register ship's papers with the American Consul, thus provoking a controversy. Visited Mili (Oct 31, Arno (Oct 8), Majuro (Oct 10), Maloelap (Oct 16) Jaluit (Oct 20) & Ebon (Oct 25). [ABCFM 1852-1909: IX, "Report of the 12th Voyage of MS, 1882-83"; Swanston 1885: VI]

Schooner FRANCISCO on a trading voyage to the Marshalls. Put in at Jaluit (Sept 23 & Oct 28), Mili (Nov 1), Jaluit (Nov 2), and Ebon (Dec 18). [Swanston 1885: VI]

Schooner STAGHOUND of SF put in at Jaluit on Oct 7. Brought goods for Capelle Co and departed on Oct 17. [Swanston 1885: VI]

Schooner LOTUS, owned by a Marshallese chief, arrived at Jaluit on Dec 1. [Swanston 1885: VI]

Schooner GREYHOUND of SF put in at Jaluit on Dec 11 to pick up copra for Capelle Co. Sailed for Pohnpei on Dec 14. [Swanston 1885: VI]

American ship NORTHERN LIGHT, Capt Slocum, on a voyage to Yokohama in Dec. Touched at Ebon & Namorik, intending to put ashore five Gilbertese who had been found drifting in a canoe, but took them to Japan instead. [Missionary Herald, LXIX (Apr 1883), 161 -4]

1883 French bark MARIA LOUISA, Capt Ohner, put in at Jaluit in Jan 18. Took on copra, then left on Feb 12 for Pohnpei & Yap with R.S. Swanston aboard. [Swanston 1885: VI]

British warship HMS ESPIEGLE, Capt Cyprian Bridge, on its cruise to the Marshalls. Anchored at Mili (June 13), Arno (June 14), Majuro (June 16), Jaluit (June 19), & Namorik (June 23). Made peace between warring chiefs on Aur and on Majuro. At Jaluit conducted hearings on a court case. [Le Hunte 1883; Bridge 1883]

Missionary packet MORNING STAR III, Capt George Garland, visited Marshalls in Nov. Put in at Jaluit (Nov 5) and Ebon (Nov 7). After touching at Kosrae, ship visited all islands in Marshalls except Arno and Majuro. Mission teachers had been removed from Majuro because of constant warfare. [ABCFM 1852-1909: IX, George Garland to Prudential Committee, 20 Mar 1884]

Schooner KALUNA of Hawaii, Capt A. Lovell, on a labor cruise, in at Jaluit in Dec. [HMCS 1853-1947: A.C. Walkup to Means. 3 Mar 1884]

A Japanese vessel was reportedly wrecked in Marshalls and the survivors killed in Lae. The natives acquired a number of guns from the vessel. Upon learning of this from the British in 1884, the Japanese Government dispatched a ship to investigate. The party returned to Japan with an admission of the crime and apologies of the people. [Yanaihara 1940: 24; Kramer 1938: 12; Humphrey 1887: 39-40]

1884 British ship ELIZABETH, Capt W.W. Wilson, visited Jaluit in Jan or Feb. [Records of British Consulate in Samoa: 1878-1886]

Schooner RAINIER, Capt Morrison, on its maiden voyage from Philadelphia was wrecked in Ujae on Jan 3. Crew were rescued and were treated kindly by the natives. Some left in a boat and were picked up near Kosrae by a British ship. Others left Ujae on a small schooner that they built from the wreck, reaching Jaluit on Mar 21. The remainder of the crew was picked up by the USS Essex on Apr 13. Humphrey's book include three chapters describing life in Ujae and native customs. [Humphrey 1887]

Steam whaling bark LUCRETIA of NB, Capt J.S. Carter, ran along the lee side of Mili on Jan 15. Obtained 30 fowl from natives who came on board ship. [Kelley 1885]

Trading schooner FRANCISCO, Capt Ryan, put in at Jaluit in early Apr. The captain assisted Humphrey in negotiating with a chief for a charter of the Lotus to pick up survivors of the Rainier on Ujae. In early May the schooner called at Ujae where it picked up Humphrey and took him to Jaluit. [Humphrey 1887: 67-8, 75]

Schooner LOTUS, belonging to the chief of Ailinglapalap, arrived at Jaluit in early April. Capt Morrison chartered the schooner to pick up his stranded crew members of the shipwrecked Rainier. By the time the Lotus reached Ujae, however, the seamen had been picked up by the USS Essex. [Humprey 1887: 63-72]

USS ESSEX, Cmdr A.H. McCormick. Apr 13: Visited Ujae and picked up several crewmen from the wrecked Rainier. Rewarded the natives for their kindness to the seamen and left the same day. Apr 16: Put in at Jaluit where they picked up coal and took aboard Capt Morrison of the Rainier. Left on Apr 19, bound for Yokohama. [ Humphrey 1887: 72, 121-4, 133-40; McCormick 1884]

Labor schooner JULIA of Honolulu visited Jaluit in June. [Humphrey 1887: 77]

British warship HMS DART, Lt Cmdr William Moore, on a cruise to the Marshall Islands. Visited Jaluit (July 21) and checked on the sale of arms to natives. Touched at Arno (Aug 5) and Majuro (Aug 7). At Majuro, Moore is investigated the sale of arms, settled the land complaint of a trader, and met with rival chiefs to strengthen peace made a year before by the HMS Espiegie. Visited Jaluit (Aug 10) & Ebon (Aug 14) before sailing on to Nauru. [Moore 1884]

British schooner ADA, Capt Hardy, in at Jaluit late in the year. Left Jaluit on Dec 26, for Yokohama with two Japanese officials aboard. [Suzuki 1892]

Schooner H.L. TIERNAN of SF owned by Crawford & Co, put in at Likiep, Jaluit (July 31) & Majuro (Aug 7). The vessel was thought to have landed guns on these islands. [Humphrey 1887: 78; McCormick 1884]

Schooner KLAKUK, Capt Phillips, arrived at Jaluit from the Gilberts in July. Departed on July 31 for San Francisco. [Humphrey 1887: 77-8]

Swedish frigate VANADIS, Commodore O. Lagerberg, on a tour of the world, lying at anchor at Jaluit on July 31. Prince Oscar of Norway and Sweden was on board. Left on Aug 2 for Yokohama. [Moore 1884]

Schooner JENNIE WALKER of Honolulu, Capt Holland, visited the Marshalls in July on ABCFM missionary charter. Touched at Jaluit, Ebon and other islands to visit churches there. [Missionary Herald, LXXXI (Mar 1885), 105-6]

Trading schooner NIEU, bound for New Britain, put in at Jaluit about July. [Humphrey 1887: 77]

Trading schooner SOVEREIGN of Auckland was lying off Ebon on Aug 14. [Moore 1884]

German man-of-war SMS HYANE, Capt Geiseler, visited Marshalls. Carried the German Consul from Samoa aboard. [Hager 1889: 32; Dana 1935: 228]

1885 Missionary steam barkentine MORNING STAR IV, Capt Isaiah Bray, put in at Jaluit on June 6. Left for the west on June 9. Ship touched at Ebon on July 4 and once again at Jaluit in Sept 22. [ABCFM 1852-1909: IX, "Report of the 1st Voyage of the Missionary Steam Barkentine MS, 1885"]

German warship SMS NAUTILUS, Capt Rotger, on a cruise through the Marshalls to raise the German flag. Oct 15: Put in at Jatuit. Four visiting chiefs and Kabua were invited aboard and given a tour of the ship. On the next day, formal annexation ceremonies were held ashore and treaty was signed by Germans and native chiefs. Ship also visited Mili (Oct 181 Arno (Oct 19), Majuro (Oct 21), Maloelap (Oct 23), Aur (Oct 25), Likiep (Oct 27), Jaluit (Oct 29), & Ebon (Oct 30). [Nautical Magazine, LV (1886), 393-7 ]

Schooner AGNES DONALD of Auckland, Capt Horatio Hayword, put in at Jaluit on Mar 24. Left for Gilberts on Mar 28. [British Consulate in Samoa: 1878-1886]